Environmental Management

, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp 814–827 | Cite as

The Islands Are Different: Human Perceptions of Game Species in Hawaii

  • Cheryl A. LohrEmail author
  • Christopher A. Lepczyk
  • Edwin D. Johnson


Hawaii’s game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human–wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human–wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs (Sus scrofa), goats (Capra hircus), mouflon (Ovis musimon), axis deer (Axis axis), turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), and doves (Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned (n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents.


Game species Human dimensions Potential for conflict index Wildlife stakeholder acceptance capacity 



Thanks to the numerous volunteers that vetted our survey prior to dissemination, especially Rebecca Christoffel. We would also like to thank Will Pitt, Michael Schuett and two anonymous reviewers for comments that improved the manuscript. This project was partially supported by USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Hatch project [HAW00110-H] and the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources to C. Lepczyk.

Supplementary material

267_2014_353_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1623 kb)
267_2014_353_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (158 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 157 kb)
267_2014_353_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (648 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 647 kb)


  1. Anderson SB (1999) Axis deer overview and profile. Accessed 6 July 2012
  2. Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry (1948) Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry. Territory of Hawaii, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
  3. Bosworth R (1995) Biology, politics, and culture in the management of subsistence hunting and fishing: an Alaskan case history. In: Peterson D, Johnson D (eds) Human ecology and climate change: people and resources in the far north. Taylor and Francis, Vermont, Washington, DC, pp 245–259Google Scholar
  4. Bowman JL, Leopold BD, Vilella FJ, Gill DA (2004) A spatially explicit model, derived from demographic variables, to predict attitudes toward black bear restoration. J Wildlife Manage 68:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown R (2010) A conservation timeline: milestones of the model’s evolution. Wildlife Prof 4:28–31Google Scholar
  6. Brown TL, Decker DJ, Siemer WF, Enck JW (2000a) Trends in hunting participation and implications for management of game species. In: Gartner WC, Lime DW (eds) Trends in outdoor recreation, leisure, and tourism. CABI, Wallingford, pp 145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown TL, Decker DJ, Riley SJ, Enck JW, Lauber TB, Curtis PD, Mattfield GF (2000b) Special coverage: hunters/trappers and wildlife managers: can the partnership survive? Wildlife Soc Bull 28:797–807Google Scholar
  8. Bruskotter JT, Schmidt RH, Teel TL (2007) Are attitudes toward wolves changing? A case study in Utah. Biol Conserv 139:211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell K, Donlan CJ (2005) Feral goat eradications on islands. Conserv Biol 19:1362–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clarke L, Agyeman J (2011) Shifting the balance in environmental governance: ethnicity, environmental citizenship and discourses of responsibility. Antipode 43:1773–1800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coad BW, Abdoli A (1993) Exotic fish species in the fresh waters of Iran. Zool Middle East 9:65–80Google Scholar
  12. Cocke S (2011) The fate of Lanai hinges on a Los Angeles real estate tycoon, Honolulu, Hawaii. Accessed 11 Dec 2012
  13. Cook J (1785) A voyage to the Pacific Ocean. The Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser, p 2Google Scholar
  14. Cuddihy LW, Stone CP (1990) Alteration of native Hawaiian vegetation: effects of humans, their activities, and introductions. University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
  15. De’ath G, Fabricius KE (2000) Classification and regression trees: a powerful yet simple technique for ecological data analysis. Ecology 81:3178–3192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dillman DA, Smyth JD, Christian LM (2009) Internet, mail, and mixed-mode surveys: the tailored design method, 3rd edn. Wiley, Hoboken, NJGoogle Scholar
  17. DLNR (2012a) Game mammal hunting (summary). Accessed 5 Apr 2012
  18. DLNR (2012b) Game bird hunting (summary). Accessed 5 Apr 2012
  19. Duffy D (2010) An historical analysis of hunting in Hawaii. Thesis, University of Hawaii at ManoaGoogle Scholar
  20. Enck JW, Decker DJ, Brown TL (2000) Status of hunter recruitment and retention in the United States. Wildlife Soc Bull 28:817–824Google Scholar
  21. Eriksen TH (2001) Small places, large issues: an introduction to social and cultural anthropology, 2nd edn. Pluto Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Gagne WC (1988) Conservation priorities in Hawaiian natural systems. Bioscience 38:264–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Giffin JG (1975a) Ecology of the feral pig on the island of Hawaii. Pittman-Robertson Final Report, Project No. W-15-3, Study No. II, 1968–1972. Hawaii Division of Fish and Game, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
  24. Giffin JG (1975b) Ecology of the feral sheep on Mauna Kea. Pittman-Robertson Final Report, Project No. W-15-5, Study No. XI, 1972–1975. Department of Land and Natural Resources, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
  25. Giles BG, Findlay CS (2004) Effectiveness of a selective harvest system in regulating deer populations in Ontario. J Wildlife Manage 68:266–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Golden KE, Peterson MN, DePerno CS, Bardon RE, Moorman CE (2013) Factors shaping private landowner engagement in wildlife management. Wildlife Soc Bull 37:94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Graf W, Nichols L (1966) The axis deer in Hawaii. Bombay Nat Hist Soc 63:630–734Google Scholar
  28. Guynn DE, Schmidt JL (1984) Managing deer hunters on private lands in Colorado. Wildlife Soc Bull 12:12–19Google Scholar
  29. Hall GP, Gill KP (2005) Management of wild deer in Australia. J Wildlife Manage 69:837–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. HAWP (2012) Hawaii association of watershed partnerships. Accessed 6 Aug 2012
  31. Henke LA (1929) A survey of livestock in Hawaii. Univ Hawaii Res Publ 5:84Google Scholar
  32. Hothorn T, Hornik K, Zeileis A (2006) Unbiased recursive partitioning: a conditional inference framework. J Comput Graph Stat 15:651–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Josayma C (n.d.) Facilitating collaborative planning in Hawaii’s Natural Area Reserves. Accessed 11 Dec 2012
  34. Juvik JO, Juvik SP (1984) Mauna Kea and the myth of multiple use: endangered species and mountain management in Hawaii. Mt Res Dev 4:191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kaltenborn BP, Bjerke T, Vitters J (2008) Attitudes toward large carnivores among sheep farmers, wildlife managers, and research biologists in Norway. Hum Dimens Wildlife 4:57–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kempthorne D, Hall HD, Gutierrez CM, Glassman CA, Murdock SH (2006) 2006 national survey of fishing, hunting, and wildlife-associated recreation. US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, and US Department of Commerce, US Census Bureau, Washington, DC. Accessed 11 Dec 2012
  37. Kirch PV (1982) The impact of the prehistoric polynesians on the Hawaiian ecosystem! Pacific Sci 36:1–14Google Scholar
  38. Koopman ME, Pitt WC (2007) Crop diversification leads to diverse bird problems in Hawaiian agriculture. Human–Wildlife Conflicts 1:235–243Google Scholar
  39. Lepczyk C, Hess SC, Johnson ED (2011) Is the model a misfit in Hawaii? Wildlife Prof 5:64–66Google Scholar
  40. Lim SH, Bowker JM, Johnson CY, Cordell HK (2009) Perspectives on prescribed fire in the south: does ethnicity matter? South J Appl For 33:17–24Google Scholar
  41. Lindemann W (1956) Transplantation of game in Europe and Asia. J Wildlife Manage 20:68–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lischka SA, Riley SJ, Rudolph BA (2008) Effects of impact perception on acceptance capacity for white-tailed deer. J Wildlife Manage 72:502–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lohr CA (2012) Human dimensions of introduced terrestrial vertebrates in the Hawaiian Islands. Dissertation, University of Hawaii at ManoaGoogle Scholar
  44. Lohr CA, Lepczyk CA (2013) Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands. Conserv Biol. doi: 10.1111/cobi12201
  45. Lovelock B (2008) Tourism and the consumption of wildlife: hunting, shooting and sport fishing. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Madden F (2004) Creating coexistence between humans and wildlife: global perspectives on local efforts to address human–wildlife conflict. Hum Dimens Wildlife 9:247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Manfredo MJ, Zinn HC (1996) Population change and its implications for wildlife management in the New West: a case study of Colorado. Hum Dimens Wildlife 1:62–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Manfredo MJ, Pierce CL, Fulton D, Pate J, Gill BR (1999) Public acceptance of wildlife trapping Colorado. Wildlife Soc Bull 27:499–508Google Scholar
  49. Manning RE (2000) Coming of age: history and trends in outdoor recreation research. In: Gartner WC, Lime DW (eds) Trends in outdoor recreation, leisure, and tourism. CABI, Wallingford, pp 121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McCorquodale SM (1997) Cultural contexts of recreational hunting and native subsistence and ceremonial hunting: their significance for wildlife management. Wildlife Soc Bull 25:568–573Google Scholar
  51. McDermott JF (1980) People and cultures of Hawaii: a psychocultural profile. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
  52. Miller KK, McGee TK (2008) Sex differences in values and knowledge of wildlife in Victoria, Australia. Hum Dimens Wildlife 5:54–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Miller CA, Vaske JJ (2003) Individual and situations influences on declining hunter effort in Illinois. Hum Dimens Wildlife 8:263–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Norman G (2010) Likert scales, levels of measurement and the “laws” of statistics. Adv Health Sci Educ: Theory Pract 15:625–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nugent G (1992) Big-game, small-game, and gamebird hunting in New Zealand: hunting effort, harvest, and expenditure in 1988. NZ J Zool 19:75–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. O’Connor K (2008) The Hawaiian luau: food as tradition, transgression, transformation and travel. Food Cult Soc 11:149–172Google Scholar
  57. Pyle RL, Pyle P (2009a) Dove: the birds of the Hawaiian Islands: occurrence, history, distribution, and status. Accessed 5 Oct 2012
  58. Pyle RL, Pyle P (2009b) Turkey: the birds of the Hawaiian Islands: occurrence, history, distribution, and status. Accessed 5 Oct 2012
  59. Ralph CJ (1990) Population dynamics of land bird populations on Oahu, Hawaii: fifty years of introduction and competition. Proc Int Ornithol Congr 20:1444–1457Google Scholar
  60. Ryan EL, Shaw B (2011) Improving hunter recruitment and retention. Hum Dimens Wildlife 16:311–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schwartz CW, Schwartz ER (1949) A reconnaissance of the game birds in Hawaii. The Hawaii News Printshop, Hilo, HIGoogle Scholar
  62. Seward NW, VerCauteren KC, Witmer GW, Engeman RM (2004) Feral swine impacts on agriculture and the environment. Sheep Goat Res J 19:34–40Google Scholar
  63. Stedman R, Diefenbach DR, Swope CB, Finley JC, Luloff AE, Zinn HC, San Julian GJ, Wang GA (2004) Integrating wildlife and human-dimensions research methods to study hunters. J Wildlife Manage 68:762–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stephens RM, Hess SC, Kawakami B Jr (2008) Controlling mouflon sheep at the Kahuku unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. In: Timm RM, Madon MB (eds) Proceedings of the 23rd vertebrate pest conference. University of California Davis, Davis, CA, pp 304–309Google Scholar
  65. Stone CP (1989) Non-native land vertebrates. In: Stone CP, Stone DB (eds) Conservation biology in Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI, pp 88–95Google Scholar
  66. Tomich PQ (1969) Mammals in Hawaii. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
  67. Tummons P (2002) Pastures of trees? Graziers, planters pulled territorial government in different directions. Environ Hawaii 13:5–10Google Scholar
  68. US Census Bureau Geography Division (2010) 2010 census urban and rural classification and urban area criteria. Accessed 6 Aug 2012
  69. Vaske J, Beaman J, Barreto H, Shelby L (2010) An extension and further validation of the potential for conflict index. Leisure Sci 32:240–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Walker RL (1978) A history of the division of fish and game. Hawaii Division of Fish and Game, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
  71. Wilmshurst JM, Hunt TL, Lipo CP, Anderson AJ (2011) High-precision radiocarbon dating shows recent and rapid initial human colonization of East Polynesia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:1815–1820CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheryl A. Lohr
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Christopher A. Lepczyk
    • 1
  • Edwin D. Johnson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Natural Resources and Environmental ManagementUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.Division of Forestry and WildlifeHawaii Department of Land and Natural ManagementHonoluluUSA
  3. 3.SinagraAustralia

Personalised recommendations