Skip to main content

Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes

Abstract

Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. “Knowledge is information combined with understanding and capability: it lives in the minds of people…Knowledge guides action, whereas information and data can merely inform or confuse” (Groff and Jones 2003, p. 3).

  2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Estuary program (NEP) Overview at http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/nep/index.cfm#tabs-2.

  3. We want to acknowledge our debt to Marilyn Buchholtz ten Brink, Ph.D., Special Assistant to the Director, Atlantic Ecology Division U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, who brought this case to our attention and on whose many direct observations we draw.

  4. In September 2013, the coalition of municipalities, named the Great Bay Coalition, dismissed the litigation and the parties are now moving forward with a scientific review of the nitrogen standards (Fosters 2013).

  5. The Management Committee members include citizens, educators, researchers, municipal officials, and representatives from state and federal agencies.

References

  • Adger WN (2003) Social capital, collective action and adaptation to climate change. Econ Geogr 79:387–404

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Adger WN, Arnella NW, Tompkins EL (2005) Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Glob Environ Change 15:77–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Adger WN, Dessai S, Goulden M, Hulme M, Lorenzoni I, Nelson DR, Naess LO, Wolf J, Wreford A (2009) Are there limits to adaptation to climate change? Clim Change 93:335–354

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agranoff R (2006) Inside collaborative networks: ten lessons for public managers. Public Adm Rev 66(Supplement):56–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agranoff R, McGuire M (2003) Collaborative public management. Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Agrawal A, Lemos MC (2007) A greener revolution in the making? Environmental governance in the 21st century. Environment 49(5):36–45

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderies JM, Janssen MA, Ostrom E (2004) A framework to analyze the robustness of social-ecological systems from an institutional perspective. Ecol Soc 9(1):18 [online]. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss1/art18

  • Ansell C, Gash A (2008) Collaborative governance in theory and practice. J Public Adm Res Theor 18(4):543

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Armitage D, Berkes F, Doubleday N (eds) (2007) Adaptive co-management: collaboration, learning, multi-level governance. UBC Press, Vancouver

    Google Scholar 

  • Armitage D, Marschke M, Plummer R (2008) Adaptive co-management and the paradox of learning. Glob Environ Change 18:86–98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bardach E (1998) Getting agencies to work together. Brookings Institution, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnes-Mauthe M, Arita S, Allen SD, Gray SA, Leung PS (2013) The influence of ethnic diversity on social network structure in a common-pool resource system: implications for collaborative management. Ecol Soc 18(1):23. doi:10.5751/ES-05295-180123

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnett J (2003) Security and climate change. Glob Environ Change 13:7–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beierle TC (1998) Public participation in environmental decisions: an evaluation framework using social goals. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC, pp 99–106

  • Beierle TC, Cayford J (2002) Democracy in practice. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Bentrup G (2001) Evaluation of a Collaborative Mode: a Case Study Analysis of Watershed Planning in the Intermountain West. Environ Manag 27:9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berkes F (2009) Evolution of co-management: role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. J Environ Manag 90:1692–1702. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.12.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (2003) Navigating social-ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Bingham LB, O’Leary R (eds) (2008) Big ideas in collaborative public management. M.E. Sharpe, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks N, Adger WN, Kelly MP (2005) The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Glob Environ Change 15:151–163

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brunner RD, Steelman TA, Coe-Juell L, Crommley CM, Edwards CM, Tucker DW (eds) (2005) Adaptive governance: integrating science, policy, and decision making. Columbia University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryson JM, Crosby BC (2007) Leadership for the common good: creating regimes of mutual gain. In: Morse RS, Buss TF, Kinghorn CM (eds) Transforming public leadership for the 21st century. National Academy of Public Administration. M.E. Sharpe, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryson JM, Crosby BC, Stone MM (2006) The design and implementation of cross-sector collaborations: propositions from the literature. Public Adm Rev 66(Supplement S1):44–55

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burdick D, Mathieson A, Moore G, Short F (2008) Letters to the editor: measurements in the estuary worse than Boston Harbor. Seacoastonline.com. June 3, 2008 at http://www.seacoastonline.com/articles/20080603-OPINION-806030382?cid=sitesearch

  • Carlson C (2007) A practical guide to collaborative governance. Policy Consensus Initiative, Portland

    Google Scholar 

  • Carpenter SR, Gunderson LH (2001) Coping with collapse: ecological and social dynamics in ecosystem management. BioScience 6:451–457

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chapin FS III, Folke C, Kofinas GP (2009) A framework for understanding change. In: Folke C, Kofinas GP, Chapin FSIII (eds) Principles of ecosystem stewardship resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world. Springer, Berlin, pp 3–28

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Charnley S, Engelbert B (2005) Evaluating public participation in environmental decisionmaking: EPA’s superfund community involvement program. J Environ Manag 77(3):165–182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cheng AS, Sturtevant VE (2012) A framework for assessing collaborative capacity in community-based public forest management. Environ Manag 49:675–689

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Choate D (2010) Last decade a wet one for the seacoast. Seacoastonline.com. http://www.seacoastonline.com/articles/20100207-NEWS-2070338?cid=sitesearch. Accessed 7 Feb 2010

  • Clark W, Jeager J, van Eijndhoven J, Dickson N (2001) Learning to manage global environmental risks: a comparative history of social responses to climate change, ozone depletion, and acid rain. MIT Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Cooper TL, Bryer TA, Meek JW (2006) Citizen-centered collaborative public management. Public Adm Rev 66(Supplement S1):76–88

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cooper TL, Bryer TA, Meek JW (2008) Outcomes achieved through citizen-centered collaborative public management. In: Bingham LB, O’Leary R (eds) Big ideas in collaborative public management. M.E. Sharpe, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Crosby B, Bryson J (2005) Leadership for the common good: tackling problems in a shared-power world. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco

    Google Scholar 

  • Daniels SE, Walker GB (2001) Working through environmental conflict: the collaborative learning approach. Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT

  • Dietz T, Stern PC (eds) (2008) Public participation in environmental assessment and decision making. National Research Council, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Dietz T, Ostrom E, Stern PC (2003) The struggle to govern the commons. Science 302:1907–1910

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dinan E (2010) Pollution solutions wanted for Great Bay watershed. Seacoastonline.com. http://www.seacoastonline.com/articles/20100720-NEWS-7200373. Accessed 20 July 2010

  • Eakin H, Lemos MC (2006) Adaptation and the state: Latin America and the challenge of capacity building under globalization. Glob Environ Change 16(1):7–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eakin H, Eriksen S, Eikelnad P-O, Oyen C (2011) Public sector reform and government for adaptation: implications of new public management for adaptive capacity in Mexico and Norway. Environ Manag 47:338–351

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elmqvist T, Folke C, Nyströom M, Peterson G, Bengtsson J et al (2003) Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. Front Ecol Environ 1:488–494

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Emerson K, Murchie P (2010) Collaborative governance and climate change: opportunities for public administration. In: O’Leary R, Van Slyke DM, Kim S (eds) The future of public administration around the world. The Minnowbrook Perspective. Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC, pp 144–154

    Google Scholar 

  • Emerson K, Orr PJ, Keyes DL, McKnight KM (2009) Environmental conflict resolution: evaluating performance outcomes and contributing factors. Confl Resolut Q 27:38

    Google Scholar 

  • Emerson K, Nabatchi T, Balogh S (2012) An integrated framework for collaborative governance. J Public Adm Theory Res 22(1):1–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Engle NL, Lemos MC (2010) Unpacking governance: building adaptive capacity to climate change of river basins in Brazil. Glob Environ Change 20:4–13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fazey I, Fazey JA, Fazey DMA (2005) Learning more effectively from experience. Ecol Soc 10(2):4. On line at http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/articles/1384.html

  • Feldman MS, Khademian AM, Ingram H, Schneider AS (2006) Ways of knowing and inclusive management practices. Public Adm Rev 66(S1):89–99

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Folke C, Carpenter S, Elmqvist T, Gunderson L, Holling CS, Walker B (2002) Resilience and sustainable development: building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. Ambio 31:437–440

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Folke C, Hahn T, Olsson P, Norberg J (2005) Adaptive governance of social-ecological systems. Annu Rev Environ Resour 30:441–473

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fosters (2013) Great Bay Coalition retracts petition to EPA. Fosters.com. At http://www.fosters.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20130904/GJNEWS_01/130909738/-1/fosnews. Accessed Sep 27, 2013

  • Frederickson G (1999) The repositioning of American public administration. PS. Polit Sci Polit 32(4):701–711

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fung A (2006) Varieties of participation in complex governance. Public Adm Rev 66(s1):66–75

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garmestani AS, Benson MH (2013) A framework for resilience-based governance of social-ecological systems. Ecol Soc 18(1):9. doi:10.5751/ES-05180-180109

    Google Scholar 

  • Gerlak AK (2013) Policy interactions in human–landscape systems. Environ Manag. doi:10.1007/s00267-013-0068-y

  • Gerlak AK, Heikkila T (2006) Comparing collaborative mechanisms in large-scale ecosystem governance. Nat Resour J 46(3):657–707

    Google Scholar 

  • Gerlak AK, Heikkila T (2011) Building a theory of learning in collaboratives: evidence from the Everglades Restoration Program. J Public Adm Res Theory 21(4):619–644

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gerlak AK, Lubell M, Heikkila T (2013) The promise and performance of collaborative governance. In: Kamieniecki S, Kraft ME (eds) Oxford handbook of US environmental policy. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 413–434

    Google Scholar 

  • Gerring J (2007) Case study research: principles and practices. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 172–186

    Google Scholar 

  • Groff TR, Jones TP (2003) Introduction to knowledge management. Elsevier Science Publishers, Burlington

    Google Scholar 

  • Gunderson L (1999) Resilience, flexibility and adaptive management: antidotes for spurious certitude?. Conserv Ecol 3(1):7. [online] http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss1/art7/

  • Gunderson LH, Carpenter SR, Folke C, Olsoon P, Peterson G (2006) Water RATs (resilience, adaptability, and transformability) in lake and wetland social-ecological systems. Ecol Soc 11(1):16. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss1/art16

  • Gupta J, Termeer C, Klostermann J, Meijerink S, van den Brink M, Jong P, Nooteboom S, Bergsma E (2010) The adaptive capacity wheel: a method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society. Environ Sci Policy 13(6):459–471

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gutiérrez N, Hilborn R, Defeo O (2011) Leadership, social capital and incentives promote successful fisheries. Nature 470:386–389

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Heikkila T, Gerlak AK (2005) The formation of large-scale Collaborative Resource Management Institutions: clarifying the Roles of Stakeholders, Science and Institutions. Policy Stud J 33(4):583–612

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haddad BM (2005) Ranking the adaptive capacity of nations to climate change when socio-political goals are explicit. Glob Environ Change 15:165–176

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harden CP, Chin A, English MR, Fu R, Galvin KA, Gerlak AK, McDowell PF, McNamara DE, Peterson JM, Poff NL, Rosa EA, Solecki WD, Wohl EE (2013) Understanding human–landscape interactions in the “Anthropocene”. Environ Manag. doi:10.1007/s00267-013-0082-0

    Google Scholar 

  • Henton D, Melville J, Amsler T, Kopell M (2005) Collaborative governance: a guide for grantmakers. William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Menlo Park

    Google Scholar 

  • Holling CS (1978) Adaptive environmental assessment and management. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Huxham C, Vangen S (2005) Managing to collaborate: the theory and practice of collaborative advantage. Routledge, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Imperial M (2005) Using Collaboration as a Governance Strategy: lessons from Six Watershed Management Programs. Adm Soc 37(3):281–320

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Imperial MT, Hennessey TM (1996) An ecosystem based approach to managing estuaries: an assessment of the National Estuary program. Coast Manag 24(2):115–139

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Imperial MT, Hennessey TM (2000) Environmental governance in watersheds: the importance of collaboration to institutional performance. National Academy of Public Administration, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Innes JE, Booher DE (1999) Consensus building and complex adaptive systems: a framework for evaluating collaborative planning. J Am Plan Assoc 65(4):412–423

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Janssen MA, Schoon ML, Ke W, Börner K (2006) Scholarly networks on resilience, vulnerability and adaptation within the human dimensions of global environmental change. Glob Environ Change 16:12

    Google Scholar 

  • Janssen MA, Anderies JM, Ostrom E (2007) Robustness of social-ecological systems to spatial and temporal variability. Soc Nat Resour 20(4):307–322

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson KA, Dana G, Jordan NR, Draeger KJ, Kapuscinski A, Schmitt Olabisi LK, Reich PB (2012) Using participatory scenarios to stimulate social learning for collaborative sustainable development. Ecol Soc 17(2):9. doi:10.5751/ES-04780-170209

    Google Scholar 

  • Juhola S, Westerhoff L (2011) Challenges of adaptation to climate change across multiple scales: a case study of network governance in two European countries. Environ Sci Policy 14(3):239–247

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jun JS (ed) (2002) Rethinking administrative theory: the challenge of the new century. Praeger, Westport

    Google Scholar 

  • Kenward RE, Whittingham MJ, Arampatzis S, Manos BD, Hahn T, Terry A, Simoncini R, Alcorn J, Bastian O, Donlan M, Elowe K, Franzén F, Karacsonyi Z, Larsson M, Manou D, Navodaru I, Papadopoulou O, Papathanasiou J, von Raggamby A, Sharp RJA, Söderqvist T, Soutukorva Å, Vavrova L, Aebischer NJ, Leader-Williams N, Rutz C (2011) Identifying governance strategies that effectively support ecosystem services, resource sustainability, and biodiversity. PNAS 108:5308–5312. doi:10.1073/pnas.1007933108

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kettl DF (2002) The transformation of governance: public administration for twenty-first century America. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore

    Google Scholar 

  • Kofinas GP (2009) Adaptive co-management in social–ecological governance. In: Folke C, Kofinas GP, Chapin FSIII (eds) Principles of ecosystem stewardship resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world. Springer, Berlin, pp 77–101

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Koontz TM, Thomas CW (2006) What do we know and need to know about the environmental outcomes of collaborative management? Public Adm Rev 66(6):111–121 Special Issue on Collaborative Management, supplement to issue

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koontz TM, Steelman TA, Carmin J, Korfmacher KS, Moseley C, Thomas CW (2004) Collaborative environmental management: what roles for government?. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Korfmacher KS (1998) Invisible successes, visible failures: Paradoxes of ecosystem management in the Albemarle–Pamlico Estuarine Study. Coast Manage 26(3):191–211

  • Korfmacher KS (2002) Science and ecosystem management in the Albemarle–Pamlico Estuarine Study. Ocean Coast Manage 45(4–5):277–300

  • Korfmacher KS (2004) Science-based Collaborative Management: The Albemarle Pamlico Estuarine Study. In: Koontz T et al (eds) Collaborative environmental management: what roles for government?. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC, pp 103–125

    Google Scholar 

  • Leach WD, Pelkey NW (2001) Making watershed partnerships work: a review of the empirical literature. J Water Resour Plann Manag 127(6):378–385

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leach WD, Sabatier PA (2005) To trust an adversary: integrating rational and psychological models of collaborative policy making. Am Polit Sci Rev 99:491–503

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lebel L, Anderies JH, Campbell B, Folke C, Hatfield-Dodds S, Hughes TP, Wilson J (2006) Governance and the capacity to manage resilience in regional social–ecological systems. Ecol Soc 11(1):19. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art19

  • Lee KN (1993) Compass and gyroscope: integrating science and politics for the environment. Island Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee KN (1999) Appraising adaptive management. Conserv Ecol 3:3–16

    Google Scholar 

  • Lubell M (2004a) Collaborative watershed management: a view from the grassroots. Policy Stud J 32(3):321–341

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lubell M (2004b) Resolving conflict and building cooperation in the National Estuary program. Environ Manage 33(5):677–691

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lubell M, Leach, WB, Sabatier P (2009) Collaborative watershed partnerships in the epoch of sustainability. In: Mazmanian D, Kraft M (eds) Toward sustainable communities: transition and transformations in environmental policy, 2nd edn. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA

  • Margerum RD (2008) A typology of collaboration efforts in environmental management. Environ Manage 41:487–500

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Margerum RD (2011) Beyond consensus: improving collaboration to solve complex public problems. MIT Press, Cambridge

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Moellenkamp S, Lamers M, Huesmann C, Rotter S, Pahl-Wostl C, Speil K and Pohl W (2010) Informal participatory platforms for adaptive management. Insights into niche-finding, collaborative design and outcomes from a participatory process in the rhine basin. Ecol Soc 15(4):41. [online] http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/art41/

  • Morse R (2007) Developing public leaders in an age of collaborative governance. In: Morse R, Buss T (eds) Innovations in public leadership development. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk

    Google Scholar 

  • Mostert E, Pahl-Wostl C, Rees Y, Searle B, Tàbara D, Tippett J (2007) Social learning in European river basin management: barriers and supportive mechanisms from 10 river basins. Ecol Soc 12(1):19–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Munaretto S, Huitema D (2012) Adaptive comanagement in the Venice lagoon? An analysis of current water and environmental management practices and prospects for change. Ecol Soc 17(2):19. doi:10.5751/ES-04772-170219

    Google Scholar 

  • Næss LO, Bang G, Eriksen S, Vevatne J (2005) Institutional adaptation to climate change: flood responses at the municipal level in Norway. Glob Environ Change 15:125–138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nelson DR, Adger WN, Brown K (2007) Adaptation to environmental change: contributions of a resilience framework. Annu Rev Environ Resour 32:395–419

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • New Hampshire Estuaries Project (2008a) Overview. At http://www.prep.unh.edu/resources/pdf/nhep_overview_unh-nhep-08.pdf

  • New Hampshire Estuaries Project (2008b) The New Hampshire Estuaries project extension into maine: working across political boundaries to protect, restore, and monitor the Great Bay Estuary. At http://www.prep.unh.edu/resources/pdf/the_new_hampshire_maine-brochure-NHEP-08.pdf

  • New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) (2000) Management Plan. Durham, NH, Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership. University of New Hampshire, Durham

  • New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) (2005) NHEP Management Plan 2005 update and integration with 2000 NHEP Management Plan. University of New Hampshire, Durham

  • Newig J, Fritsch O (2009) Environmental governance: participatory, multi-level—and effective? Environ Policy Gov 19:197–214

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Newig J, Pahl-Wostl C, Sigel K (2005) The role of public participation in managing uncertainty in the implementation of the water framework directive. Eur Environ 15:333–343

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Norberg J, Wilson J, Walker BH, Ostrom E (2008) Diversity and resilience of social-ecological systems. In: Norberg J, Cumming GS (eds) Complexity theory for a sustainable future. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 46–79

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Leary R, Gazley B, McGuire M, Bingham LB (2009) Public managers in collaboration. In: O’Leary R, Bingham LB (eds) The collaborative public manager. Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC, pp 1–12

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Leary R, Bingham LB, Gerard C (2006) Special issue on collaborative public management. Public Adm Rev 66(s1):33–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Leary R, Choi Y, and Gerard CM (2012) The skill set of the successful collaborator. PAR, doi: 10.111/j.1540-6210.2012.02667.x

  • Olsson P, Folke C, Berkes F (2004) Adaptive comanagement for building resilience in social-ecological systems. Environ Manag 34(1):75–90

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ostrom E (2009) A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems. Science 325:419–422

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pahl-Wostl C (2007) Transitions toward adaptive management of water Facing climate and global change. Water Resour Manag 21(1):49–62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pahl-Wostl C (2009) A conceptual framework for analysing adaptive capacity and multi-level learning processes in resource governance regimes. Global Environ Change 19:354–365

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pahl-Wostl C, Conca K, Kramer A, Maestu J, Schmidt F (2013) Missing links in global water governance: a processes-oriented analysis. Ecol Soc 18(2):33. doi:10.5751/ES-05554-180233

  • Pennington, DD (2008) Cross-disciplinary collaboration and learning. Ecol Soc 13(2):8 [Online] http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art8/

  • Peterson CH, Barber RT, Cottingham KL, Lotze HK, Simenstad CA,Christian RR, Piehler MF, Wilson J (2008) National estuaries. In: Julius SH, West JM, Baron JS, Griffith B, Joyce LA, Kareiva P, Keller BD, Palmer MA, Peterson CH, Scott JM (eds) Preliminary review of adaptation options for climate- sensitive ecosystems and resources. A report by the US Climate change science program and the subcommittee on global change research. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, pp 7-1–7-108

  • Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP) (2009a) State of the estuaries. University of New Hampshire, Durham

    Google Scholar 

  • Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP) (2009b) Press release: new hampshire estuaries project changes name to Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership. University of New Hampshire, Durham

  • Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP) (2010) Management Plan. Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership University of New Hampshire, Durham

  • Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP) (2013) Committees. At http://www.prep.unh.edu/about/committees.htm. Accessed Sep 9 2013

  • Plummer R, Armitage D (2007) A resilience-based framework for evaluating adaptive co-management: linking ecology, economics, and society in a complex world. Ecol Econ 61:62–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prager K (2010) Local and regional partnerships in natural resource management: the challenge of bridging institutional levels. Environ Manag 46:711–724

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Provan KG, Milward BH (1995) A preliminary theory of interorganizational network effectiveness: a comparative study of four community mental health systems. Adm Sci Q 40(1):1–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raadgever GT, Mostert E, Kranz N, Interwies E, Timmerman JG (2008) Assessing management regimes in transboundary river basins: do they support adaptive management? Ecol Soc 13:14. [online]. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss1/art14/

  • Reed MS, Evely AC, Cundill G, Fazey I, Glass J, Laing A, Newig J, Parrish B, Prell C, Raymond C, Stringer LC (2010) What is social learning? Ecol Soc 15(4): r1. [online] http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/resp1/

  • Salehyan I (2008) From climate change to conflict? No consensus yet. J Peace Res 45(3):315–326

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schneider M (2003) Building consensual institutions: networks and the national estuary program. Am J Politi Sci 47(1):143–158

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scholz JT, Stiftel B (eds) (2005) Adaptive governance and water conflict. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Schusler TM, Decker DJ, Pfeffer MJ (2003) Social learning for collaborative natural resource management. Soc Nat Resour 15:309–326

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Selin S, Chavez D (1995) Developing a collaborative model for environmental planning and management. Environ Manag 19:6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sirianni C (2009) Investing in democracy: engaging citizens in collaborative governance. Brookings Institution, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Steinberg PF (2009) Institutional resilience amid political change: the case of biodiversity conservation. Global Environ Polit 9(3):61–81

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Steyaert P, Jiggins J (2007) Governance of complex environmental situations through social learning: a synthesis of SLIM’s lessons for research, policy and practice. Environ Sci Policy 10:575–585

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Susskind L, McKearnan S, Thomas-Larmer J (eds) (1999) The consensus-building handbook: a comprehensive guide to reaching agreement. Sage Books, Thousand Oaks

    Google Scholar 

  • Tang SY, Mazmanian DA (2010) Understanding collaborative governance from the structural choice—politics, IAD, and transaction cost perspectives. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1516851 or 10.2139/ssrn.1516851

  • Thomson AM, Perry J (2006) Collaboration processes: inside the black box. Public Adm Rev 66(s1):20–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomson AM, Perry JL, Miller TK (2008) Linking collaborative performance: aligning policy intent, design, and impact. In: Bingham LB, O’Leary R (eds) Big ideas in collaborative public management. M.E. Sharpe, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Tippett J, Searle B, Pahl-Wostl C, Rees Y (2005) Social learning in public participation in river basin management—early findings from HarmoniCOP European case studies. Environ Sci Policy 8:287–299

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Truslow DB (2009) PREP CCMP update: stakeholder input and meeting summary report on PREP comprehensive conservation and management plan update. University of New Hampshire, Durham http://www.prep.unh.edu/resources/pdf/prep_ccmp_update_stakeholder.pdf

  • US Environmental Protection Agency (2013) National estuaries program. At http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/nep/index.cfm

  • Wagner CL, Fernandez-Gimenez ME (2009) Effects of community-based collaborative group characteristics on social capital. Environ Manag 44:632–645

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Walker B, Carpenter S, Anderies J, Abel N, Cummings G., Janssen M, Lebel L, Norberg J, Peterson GD, Pritchard R (2002) Resilience management in social-ecological systems: a working hypothesis for a participatory approach. Conserv Ecol 6(1):14 (online), http://www.consecol.org/vol6/iss1/art14/main.html

  • Walters CJ (1986) Adaptive management of renewable resources. Blackburn Press, Caldwell

    Google Scholar 

  • Weber EP (2003) Bringing society back. In: Weber EP (ed) Grassroots ecosystem management, accountability, and sustainable communities. MIT Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Weber EP, Lovrich NP, Gaffney M (2005) Collaboration, enforcement, and endangered species: a framework for assessing collaborative problem-solving capacity. Soc Nat Resour 18:677–698

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weible CM, Pattison A, Sabatier PA (2010) Harnessing expert-based information for learning and the sustainable management of complex socio-ecological systems. Environ Sci Policy 13:522–534

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • West JM, Julius SH, Kareiva P, Enquist C, Lawler JJ, Petersen B, Johnson AE, Shaw MR (2009) US natural resources and climate change: concepts and approaches for management adaptation. Environ Manage 44:1001–1021

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wheaton EE, Maciver DC (1999) A framework and key questions for adapting to climate variability and change. Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Change 4(3):215–225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yohe G, Tol RSJ (2002) Indicators for social and economic coping capacity: moving towards a working definition of adaptive capacity. Glob Environ Change 12:25–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We received no financial or in-kind support for this project.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kirk Emerson.

Additional information

Authors are listed in alphabetical order reflecting their equal contribution to this paper.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Emerson, K., Gerlak, A.K. Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes. Environmental Management 54, 768–781 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-014-0334-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-014-0334-7

Keywords

  • Adaptation
  • Adaptive capacity
  • Collaborative governance
  • Collaborative capacity
  • Institutional adaptation