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Environmental Management

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 493–502 | Cite as

Cultural Influence on Crowding Norms in Outdoor Recreation: A Comparative Analysis of Visitors to National Parks in Turkey and the United States

  • Selcuk Sayan
  • Daniel H. KrymkowskiEmail author
  • Robert E. Manning
  • William A. Valliere
  • Ellen L. Rovelstad
Article

Abstract

Formulation of standards of quality in parks and outdoor recreation can be guided by normative theory and related empirical methods. We apply this approach to measure the acceptability of a range of use levels in national parks in Turkey and the United States. Using statistical methods for comparing norm curves across contexts, we find significant differences among Americans, British, and Turkish respondents. In particular, American and British respondents were substantially less tolerant of seeing other visitors and demonstrated higher norm intensity than Turkish respondents. We discuss the role of culture in explaining these findings, paying particular attention to Turkey as a traditional “contact culture” and the conventional emphasis on solitude and escape in American environmental history and policy. We conclude with a number of recommendations to stimulate more research on the relationship between culture and outdoor recreation.

Keywords

Crowding norms National parks Culture Statistical comparison of norm curves Turkey United States 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the editors and four anonymous reviewers for very helpful comments on an earlier draft of this article. The authors also thank Zion National Park for financial support, Professor Wayne Freimund for help with preparation of the study photographs and the Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Akdeniz University, and the Turkish National Park Service for their assistance.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Selcuk Sayan
    • 1
  • Daniel H. Krymkowski
    • 2
    Email author
  • Robert E. Manning
    • 2
  • William A. Valliere
    • 2
  • Ellen L. Rovelstad
    • 2
  1. 1.Akdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey
  2. 2.The University of VermontBurlingtonUSA

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