Environmental Management

, Volume 51, Issue 2, pp 474–491 | Cite as

Adapting to Climate Change on Western Public Lands: Addressing the Ecological Effects of Domestic, Wild, and Feral Ungulates

  • Robert L. BeschtaEmail author
  • Debra L. Donahue
  • Dominick A. DellaSala
  • Jonathan J. Rhodes
  • James R. Karr
  • Mary H. O’Brien
  • Thomas L. Fleischner
  • Cindy Deacon Williams


Climate change affects public land ecosystems and services throughout the American West and these effects are projected to intensify. Even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, adaptation strategies for public lands are needed to reduce anthropogenic stressors of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and to help native species and ecosystems survive in an altered environment. Historical and contemporary livestock production—the most widespread and long-running commercial use of public lands—can alter vegetation, soils, hydrology, and wildlife species composition and abundances in ways that exacerbate the effects of climate change on these resources. Excess abundance of native ungulates (e.g., deer or elk) and feral horses and burros add to these impacts. Although many of these consequences have been studied for decades, the ongoing and impending effects of ungulates in a changing climate require new management strategies for limiting their threats to the long-term supply of ecosystem services on public lands. Removing or reducing livestock across large areas of public land would alleviate a widely recognized and long-term stressor and make these lands less susceptible to the effects of climate change. Where livestock use continues, or where significant densities of wild or feral ungulates occur, management should carefully document the ecological, social, and economic consequences (both costs and benefits) to better ensure management that minimizes ungulate impacts to plant and animal communities, soils, and water resources. Reestablishing apex predators in large, contiguous areas of public land may help mitigate any adverse ecological effects of wild ungulates.


Ungulates Climate change Ecosystems Public lands Biodiversity Restoration 



We greatly appreciate reviews by D.S. Dobkin, S.C. Fouty, J.B. Kauffman, and W.S. Platts of an early draft. We also appreciate the comments, questions, and suggestions provided by two anonymous reviewers. This work was supported by grants to the Geos Institute from the Wilburforce and Wyss foundations and by a Kline Law Faculty Research Fund grant.


  1. Abella SR (2008) A systematic review of wild burro grazing effects on Mojave Desert vegetation, USA. Environ Manage 41:809–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen DL (1974) Our wildlife legacy. Funk and Wagnalls, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Allington GRH, Valone TJ (2010) Reversal of desertification: the role of physical and chemical soil properties. J Arid Environ 74:973–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angermeier PL, Karr JR (1994) Biological integrity versus biological diversity as policy directives. Bioscience 44:690–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asner GP, Elmore AJ, Olander LP, Martin RE, Harris AT (2004) Grazing systems, ecosystem responses, and global change. Ann Rev Environ Resour 29:261–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Backlund P, Janetos A, Schimel D, Hatfield J, Ryan M, Archer S, Lettenmaier D (2008) The effects of climate change on agriculture, land resources, water resources, and biodiversity. A report by the US Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC,
  7. Balling RC, Klopatek JM, Hildebrandt ML, Moritz CK, Watts J (1998) Impacts of land degradation on historical temperature records from the Sonoran Desert. Clim Change 40:669–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnosky AD, Hadly EA, Bascompte J et al (2012) Approaching a state shift in Earth’s biosphere. Nature 486:52–58Google Scholar
  9. Bates BC, Kundzewicz ZW, Wu S, Palutikof JP (eds) (2008) Climate change and water. In: Technical paper of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. IPCC Secretariat, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  10. Baxter CV, Fausch KD, Saunders WC (2005) Tangled webs: reciprocal flows of invertebrate prey link streams and riparian zones. Freshw Biol 50:201–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beever EA, Tausch RT, Brussard PF (2003) Characterizing grazing disturbance in semiarid ecosystems across broad scales, using diverse indices. Ecol Appl 13:119–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) (2003) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Belnap J, Phillips SL, Troxler T (2006) Soil lichen and moss cover and species richness can be highly dynamic: the effects of invasion by the annual exotic grass Bromus tectorum, precipitation, and temperature on biological soil crusts in SE Utah. Appl Soil Ecol 32:63–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Belsky AJ, Blumenthal DM (1997) Effects of livestock grazing on stand dynamics and soils in upland forests of the interior west. Conserv Biol 11:315–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Belsky AJ, Matzke A, Uselman S (1999) Survey of livestock influences on stream and riparian ecosystems in the western United States. J Soil Water Conserv 54:419–431Google Scholar
  16. Berger J, Stacey PB, Bellis L, Johnson MP (2001) A mammalian predator–prey imbalance: grizzly bear and wolf extinction affect avian neotropical migrants. Ecol Appl 11:967–980Google Scholar
  17. Beschta RL (1997) Riparian shade and stream temperature: an alternative perspective. Rangelands 19:25–28Google Scholar
  18. Beschta RL, Ripple WJ (2009) Large predators and trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems of the western United States. Biol Conserv 142:2401–2414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Beschta RL, Ripple WJ (2012) The role of large predators in maintaining riparian plant communities and river morphology. Geomorphology 157–158:88–98Google Scholar
  20. Beschta RL, Rhodes JJ, Kauffman JB, Gresswell RE, Minshall GW, Frissell CA, Perry DA, Hauer R, Karr JR (2004) Postfire management on forested public lands of the western United States. Conserv Biol 18:957–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bestelmeyer BT, Herrick JE, Brown JR, Trujillo DA, Havstad KM (2004) Land management in the American Southwest: a state-and-transition approach to ecosystem complexity. Environ Manage 34:38–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Binkley D, Moore MM, Romme WH, Brown PM (2006) Was Aldo Leopold right about the Kaibab deer herd? Ecosystems 9:227–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Blackburn WH (1984) Impacts of grazing intensity and specialized grazing systems on watershed characteristics and responses. In: Developing strategies for rangeland management. National Research Council, Westview Press, Boulder, pp 927–983Google Scholar
  24. BLM (Bureau of Land Management) (2005) Draft vegetation treatments using herbicides on Bureau of Land management lands in 17 western states. Programmatic EIS. US Bureau of Land Management, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  25. BLM (Bureau of Land Management) (2009) Public land statistics. US Bureau of Land Management, Washington, DC
  26. BLM and FS (Bureau of Land Management and US Forest Service (1994) Rangeland reform’94: draft environmental impact statement. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  27. Bock CE, Bock JH, Smith HM (1993) Proposal for a system of federal livestock exclosures on public rangelands in the western United States. Conserv Biol 7:731–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bowker MA, Miller ME, Belote RT (2012) Assessment of rangeland ecosystem conditions, Salt Creek Watershed and Dugout Ranch, southeastern Utah. US Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Report 2012-1061,
  29. Branson FA, Gifford GF, Renard KG, Hadley RF (1981) Rangeland hydrology. Kendall/Hunt Publishing, DubuqueGoogle Scholar
  30. Brennan LA, Kuflesky WP Jr (2005) North American grassland birds: an unfolding conservation crisis? J Wildl Manag 69:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brooks ML (2008) Plant invasions and fire regimes. In: Brown JK, Smith JK (eds) Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora. US Forest Service RMRS-GTR-42, Fort Collins, Colorado, pp 33–45Google Scholar
  32. Brown JH, Valone TJ, Curtin CG (1997) Reorganization of an arid ecosystem in response to recent climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci 94:9729–9733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. CEQ (Council on Environmental Quality) (2010) Progress report of the Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force: recommended actions in support of a National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy. Washington, DC, USA. [online]
  34. Chadde S, Kay CE (1996) Tall-willow communities on Yellowstone’s northern range: a test of the ‘‘natural regulation’’ paradigm. In: Singer FJ (ed) Effects of grazing by wild ungulates in Yellowstone National Park. Technical Report NPS/NRYELL/NRTR/96-01. National Park Service, Denver, pp 165–184Google Scholar
  35. Christensen NL, Bartuska AM, Brown JH, Carpenter S, D’Antonio C, Francis R, Franklin JF, MacMahon JA, Noss RF, Parsons DJ, Peterson CH, Turner MG, Woodmansee RG (1996) The report of the Ecological Society of America committee on the basis for ecosystem management. Ecol Appl 6:665–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Coggins GC, Wilkinson CF, Leshy JD, Fischman RL (2007) Federal public land and resources law. Foundation Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Connelly JW, Knick ST, Schroeder MA, Stiver SJ (2004) Conservation assessment of greater sage-grouse and sagebrush habitats. Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, CheyenneGoogle Scholar
  38. Cowley ER (2002) Monitoring current year streambank alteration. US Bureau of Land Management, BoiseGoogle Scholar
  39. CWWR (Centers for Water and Wildland Resources) (1996) Sierra Nevada ecosystem project report. Wildland Resources Center Report No. 39. University of California, DavisGoogle Scholar
  40. D’Antonio CM, Vitousek PM (1992) Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 23:63–87Google Scholar
  41. Dobkin DS, Rich AC, Pyle WH (1998) Habitat and avifaunal recovery from livestock grazing in a riparian meadow system of the northwestern Great Basin. Conserv Biol 12:209–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. DOI-OIG (Department of the Interior-Office of the Inspector General) (2010) Bureau of land management wild horse and burrow program. Report C-IS-BLM-0018-2010, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  43. Donahue DL (2007) Federal rangeland policy: perverting law and jeopardizing ecosystem services. J Land Use Environ Law 22:299–354Google Scholar
  44. Dwire KA, Ryan SE, Shirley LJ, Lytjen D, Otting N, Dixon MK (2007) Influence of herbivory on regrowth of riparian shrubs following a wildland fire. J Am Water Resour Assoc 42:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) (1999) A review and synthesis of effects of alterations to the water temperature regime on freshwater life stages of salmonids, with special reference to chinook salmon, USEPA Technical Report EPA 910-R-99-010. USEPA, Seattle,
  46. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) (2009) National water quality inventory: report to congress, 2004 reporting cycle. US Environmental Protection Agency EPA-841-R-08-001, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  47. Estes JA, Terborgh J, Brashares JS, and 21 others (2011) Trophic downgrading of planet earth. Science 333:301–306Google Scholar
  48. Field CB, Mortsch LD, Brklacich M, Forbes DL, Kovacs P, Patz JA, Running SW, Scott MJ (2007) North America. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 617–652Google Scholar
  49. Fleischner TL (1994) Ecological costs of livestock grazing in western North America. Conserv Biol 8:629–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fleischner TL (2010) Livestock grazing and wildlife conservation in the American West: historical, policy and conservation biology perspectives. In: du Toit JT, Kock R, Deutsch JC (eds) Wild rangelands: conserving wildlife while maintaining livestock in semi-arid ecosystems. Blackwell Publishing, Boston, pp 235–265Google Scholar
  51. Floyd ML, Fleischner TL, Hanna D, Whitefield P (2003) Effects of historic livestock grazing on vegetation at Chaco Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico. Conserv Biol 17:1703–1711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Flynn AJ, Alvarez P, Brown JR, George MR, Kustin C, Laca EA, Oldfield JT, Schohr T, Neely CL, Wong CP (2009) Soil carbon sequestration in U.S. rangelands: Issues paper for protocol development. Environmental Defense Fund, Sacramento,
  53. FS (Forest Service) (2007) USDA Forest service strategic plan FY 2007-2012. FS-880.
  54. FS and BLM (Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management) (1997) The assessment of ecosystem components in the Interior Columbia Basin and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins, vol I–IV. PNW-GTR-405. US Forest Service and US Bureau of Land Management, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  55. Furniss MJ, Millar CI, Peterson DL, Joyce LA, Neilson RP, Halofsky JE, Kerns BK (eds) (2009) Adapting to climate change: a short course for land managers. US Forest Service PNW-GTR-789, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  56. FWS (US Fish and Wildlife Service) (2010) Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; 12-month findings for petitions to list the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as threatened or endangered. Federal Register 75:13910–14010, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  57. GAO (Government Accountability Office) (2005) Livestock grazing: federal expenditures and receipts vary, depending on the agency and the purpose of the fee charged. US Government Accountability Office GAO-05-869, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  58. GAO (Government Accountability Office) (2007) Climate change: agencies should develop guidance for addressing the effects on federal land and water resources. US Government Accountability Office GAO-07-863, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  59. Genter BJ, Tanaka JA (2002) Classifying federal public land grazing permittees. J Range Manag 55:2–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gill RA (2007) Influence of 90 years of protection from grazing on plant and soil processes in the subalpine meadows of the Wasatch Plateau, USA. Rangel Ecol Manag 60:88–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gorte RW, Vincent CH, Alexander K, Humphries M (2010) Federal lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and US Forest Service (FS): issues for the 111th congress. Congressional Research Service R40237, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  62. Graves HS, Nelson EW (1919) Our national elk herds. US Department of Agriculture, Departmental Circular 51, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  63. Grover HB, Musick HB (1990) Shrubland encroachment in southern New Mexico, USA: an analysis of desertification processes in the American southwest. Clim Change 16:165–190Google Scholar
  64. GS and AFS (Geological Survey and American Fisheries Society) (2011) Imperiled fish, by ecoregion.
  65. Hanley TA, Brady WW (1977) Feral burro impact on a Sonoran desert range. J Range Manag 30:374–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Harrington JL, Conover MR (2006) Characteristics of ungulate behavior and mortality associated with wire fences. Wildl Soc Bull 34:1295–1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Haynes, RW, Horne AL, Reyna NE (1997) Economic evaluation of the preliminary draft EIS alternatives. In: Quigley TM, Lee KM, Arbelbide SJ (eds) Evaluation of the environmental impact statement alternatives by the science integration team. US Forest Service PNW-GTR-406, Portland, Oregon, pp 731–758Google Scholar
  68. Heller NE, Zavaleta ES (2009) Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: a review of 22 years of research. Biol Conserv 142:14–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Henjum MG, Karr JR, Chu EW (1994) Interim protection for late-successional forests, fisheries, and watersheds: national forests east of the Cascade Crest, Oregon and Washington. Wildlife Society Technical Review, Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  70. Hunter M Jr, Dinerstein E, Hoekstra J, Lindenmayer D (2010) A call to action for conserving biological diversity in the face of climate change. Conserv Biol 24:1169–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007a) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Avery KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, UKGoogle Scholar
  72. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007b) Climate change 2007: synthesis report. In: Pachauri RK, Reisinger A (eds) Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  73. Isaak DJ, Wollrab S, Horan D, Chandler G (2012) Climate change effects on stream and river temperatures across the northwest U.S. from 1980–2009 and implications for salmonid fishes. Clim Change 113:499–524Google Scholar
  74. ITF (Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force) (2011) Draft national action plan: priorities for managing freshwater resources in a changing climate. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  75. Jelks HL, Walsh SJ, Burkhead NM, Contreras-Balderas S, Diaz-Pardo E, Hendrickson DA, Lyons J, Mandrak NE, McCormick F, Nelson JS, Platania SP, Porter BA, Renaud CB, Schmitter-Soto JJ, Taylor EB, Warren ML Jr (2008) Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33:372–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jones MB, Donnelly A (2004) Carbon sequestration in temperate grassland ecosystems and the influence of management, climate and elevated CO2. New Phytol 164:423–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Joyce LA, Blate GM, Littell JS, McNulty SG, Millar CI, Moser SC, Neilson RP, O’Halloran K, Peterson DL (2008) Adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources: national forests. Environmental Protection Agency, Climate Change Science Program SAP 4.4, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  78. Joyce LA, Blate GM, McNulty SG, Millar CI, Moser S, Neilson RP, Peterson DL (2009) Managing for multiple resources under climate change: national forests. Environ Manage 44:1022–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Julius SH, West JM, Barron JS, Joyce LA, Griffith B, Kareiva P, Keller BD, Palmer M, Peterson C, Scott JM (2008) Executive summary. In: Preliminary review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources. US Climate Change Science Program and the Committee on Global Change Research, Final Report, Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.4, USEPA, Washington, DC, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  80. Karl TR, Melillo JM, Peterson TC (eds) (2009) Global climate change impacts in the United States. US Global Change Research Program. Cambridge University Press, New York.‐assessments/us‐impacts
  81. Karnopp J (2008) Elk hunt forecast. Bugle. J Rocky Mount Elk Found 25:84–105Google Scholar
  82. Karnosky DF, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, and 28 others (2003) Tropospheric O3 moderates responses of temperate hardwood forests to elevated CO2: a synthesis of molecular to ecosystem results from the aspen FACE project. Funct Ecol 17:289–304Google Scholar
  83. Karr JR (2004) Beyond definitions: maintaining biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health in national wildlife refuges. Nat Resour J 44:1067–1092Google Scholar
  84. Karr JR (2006) Seven foundations of biological monitoring and assessment. Biol Ambient 20:7–18Google Scholar
  85. Karr JR, Rossano EM (2001) Applying public health lessons to protect river health. Ecol Civil Eng 4:3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kauffman JB, Pyke DA (2001) Range ecology, global livestock influences. In: Levin S (ed) Encyclopedia of biodiversity, vol 5. Academic Press, New York, pp 33–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kauffman JB, Beschta RL, Otting N, Lytjen D (1997) An ecological perspective of riparian and stream restoration in the western United States. Fisheries 22:12–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kauffman JB, Mahrt M, Mahrt L, Edge WD (2001) Wildlife of riparian habitats. In: Johnson DH, O’Neil TA (eds) Wildlife-habitat relationships in Oregon and Washington. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, pp 361–388Google Scholar
  89. Kauffman JB, Thorpe AS, Brookshire J, Ellingson L (2004) Livestock exclusion and belowground ecosystem responses in riparian meadows of eastern Oregon. Ecol Appl 14:1671–1679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kaushal SS, Likens GE, Jaworksi NA, Pace ML, Sides AM, Seekell D, Belt KT, Secor DH, Wingate RL (2010) Rising stream and river temperatures in the United States. Front Ecol Environ 8:461–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kleppe v. New Mexico (1976) 426 U.S. 529. U.S. Supreme CourtGoogle Scholar
  92. Knick ST, Hanser SE (2011) Connecting pattern and process in greater sage grouse populations and sagebrush landscapes. In: Knick ST, Connelly JW (eds) Greater sage-grouse: ecology and conservation of a landscape species and its habitats. Studies in avian biology, vol 38. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  93. Kondolf GM (1994) Livestock grazing and habitat for a threatened species: land-use decisions under scientific uncertainty in the White Mountains, California, USA. Environ Manage 18:501–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kondolf GM, Kattelmann R, Embury M, Erman DC (1996) Status of riparian habitat. Sierra Nevada ecosystem project: final report to congress, vol II, chap 36. Wildland Resources Center Report No. 39, University of California, DavisGoogle Scholar
  95. Laitos JG, Carr TA (1999) The transformation on public lands. Ecol Law Q 26:140–242Google Scholar
  96. Lal R (2001a) The physical quality of soil on grazing lands and its effects on sequestering carbon. In: Follett RF, Kimble JM, Lal R (eds) Potential of U.S. grazing lands to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 249–266Google Scholar
  97. Lal R (2001b) Soil erosion and carbon dynamics on grazing land. In: Follett RF, Kimble JM, Lal R (eds) Potential of U.S. grazing lands to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 231–247Google Scholar
  98. LaPaix R, Freedman B, Patriquin D (2009) Ground vegetation as an indicator of ecological integrity. Environ Rev 17:249–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Love LD (1959) Rangeland watershed management. In: Proceedings, society of American foresters, pp 198–200Google Scholar
  100. Luce CH, Holden ZA (2009) Declining annual streamflow distributions in the Pacific Northwest United States, 1948–2006. Geophys Res Lett 36. doi: 10.1029/2009GL039407
  101. Mackie RJ, Pac DF, Hamlin KL, Dusek GL (1998) Ecology and management of mule deer and white-tailed deer in Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, HelenaGoogle Scholar
  102. Mathews KH Jr, Ingram K, Lewandrowski J, Dunmore J (2002) Public lands and western communities. Agricultural Outlook, USDA-Economic Research Service, June–July 2002, pp 18–22Google Scholar
  103. MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment), (2005a) Ecosystems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, p 86Google Scholar
  104. MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) (2005b) Ecosystems and human well-being: desertification synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.
  105. Middleton NJ, Thomas DSG (eds) (1997) World atlas of desertification. U.N. Environment Programme. Edward Arnold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  106. Milchunas DG, Lauenroth WK (1993) Quantitative effects of grazing on vegetation and soils over a global range of environments. Ecol Monogr 63:327–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Milchunas DG, Lauenroth WK, Burke IC (1998) Livestock grazing: animal and plant biodiversity of shortgrass steppe and the relationship to ecosystem function. Oikos 83:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Miller B, Dugelby B, Foreman D, Martinez del Rio C, Noss R, Phillips M, Reading R, Soulé ME, Terborgh J, Willcox L (2001) The importance of large carnivores to healthy ecosystems. Endang Spec Update 18:202–210Google Scholar
  109. Milly PCD, Kunne KA, Vecchia AV (2005) Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate. Nature 438:347–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Milly PCD, Betancourt J, Falkenmark M, Hirsch RM, Kundzewicz ZW, Lettenmaier DP, Stouffer RJ (2008) Stationarity is dead: whither water management? Science 319:573–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mote PW, Hamlet AF, Clark MP, Lettenmaier DP (2005) Declining mountain snowpack in western North America. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 86:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Munson SM, Belnap J, Okin GS (2011) Responses of wind erosion to climate-induced vegetation changes on the Colorado Plateau. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:3854–3859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Neff JC, Ballantyne AP, Farmer GL, Mahowald NM, Conroy JL, Landry CC, Overpeck JT, Painter TH, Lawrence CR, Reynolds RL (2008) Increasing eolian dust deposition in the western United States linked to human activity. Nature Geoscience 1:189–195Google Scholar
  114. Noss RF, LaRoe III ET, Scott JM (1995) Endangered ecosystems of the United States: a preliminary assessment of loss and degradation. Biological Rep. 28. National Biological Service. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  115. NRC (National Research Council), (2002) Riparian areas: functions and strategies for management. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  116. Ohmart RD (1996) Historical and present impacts of livestock grazing on fish and wildlife resources in western riparian habitats. In: Krausman PR (ed) Rangeland wildlife. Society for Range Management, Denver, pp 245–279Google Scholar
  117. Ohmart RD, Anderson BW (1986) Riparian habitat. In: Cooperrider AY, Boyd J, Stuart HR (eds) Inventory and monitoring wildlife habitat. US Bureau of Land Management Service Center, Denver, Colorado, pp 169–199Google Scholar
  118. Patterson TA, Coelho DL (2009) Ecosystem services: foundations, opportunities, and challenges for the forest products sector. For Ecol Manage 257:1637–1646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Pederson GT, Gray ST, Woodhouse CA, Betancourt JL, Fagre DB, Littell JS, Watson E, Luckman BH, Graumlich LJ (2011) The unusual nature of recent snowpack declines in the North American cordillera. Science 333:332–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Peters DPC, Yao J, Sala OE, Anderson JP (2011) Directional climate change and potential reversal of desertification in arid and semiarid ecosystems. Glob Change Biol 18:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Peterson DL, Millar CI, Joyce LA, Furniss MJ, Halofsky JE, Neilson RP, Morelli TL (2011) Responding to climate change in national forests: A guidebook for developing adaptation options. US Forest Service PNW-GTR-855, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  122. Piechota T, Timilsena J, Tootle G, Hidalgo H (2004) The western drought: how bad is it? Eos 85:301–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Platts WS (1991) Livestock grazing. In: Meehan WR (ed) Influences of forest and rangeland management on salmonid fishes and their habitats. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 19, Bethesda, pp 389–423Google Scholar
  124. Ponce VM, Lindquist DS (1990) Management of baseflow augmentation: a review. Water Resour Bull 26:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Power TM (1996) Lost landscapes and failed economies. Island Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  126. Prato T (2011) Adaptively managing wildlife for climate change: a fuzzy logic approach. Environ Manage 48:142–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Public Lands Council v. Babbitt (2000) 529 U.S. 728. U.S. Supreme CourtGoogle Scholar
  128. Rhodes JJ, Baker WL (2008) Fire probability, fuel treatment effectiveness and ecological tradeoffs in western U.S. public forests. Open For Sci J 1:1–7Google Scholar
  129. Rhodes JJ, McCullough DA, Espinosa FA (1994) A coarse screening process for evaluation of the effects of land management activities on salmon spawning and rearing habitat in ESA consultations. Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Technical Report 94-4, Portland, OregonGoogle Scholar
  130. Rich TD, Wisdom MJ, Saab VA (2005) Conservation of priority birds in sagebrush ecosystems. In: Ralph JC, Rich TD (eds) Bird conservation implementation and integration in the Americas, proceedings of the third international partners in flight conference. US Forest Service PSW-GTR-191, Albany, pp 589–606Google Scholar
  131. Richter BD, Braun DP, Mendelson MA, Master LL (1997) Threats to imperiled freshwater fauna. Conserv Biol 11:1081–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rieman BE, Isaak DJ (2010) Climate change, aquatic ecosystems, and fishes in the Rocky Mountain West: implications and alternatives for management. US Forest Service RMRS-GTR-250, Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  133. Ripple WJ, Rooney TP, Beschta RL (2010) Large predators, deer, and trophic cascades in boreal and temperate ecosystems. In: Terborgh J, Estes J (eds) Trophic cascades: predators, prey, and the changing dynamics of nature. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 141–161Google Scholar
  134. Root TL, Price JT, Hall KR, Schneider SH, Rosenzweig C, Pounds JA (2003) Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature 421:57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Saab VA, Bock CE, Rich TD, Dobkin DS (1995) Livestock grazing effects on migratory landbirds in western North America. Martin TE, Finch DM (eds) Ecology and management of neotropical migratory birds: a synthesis and review of critical issues. Oxford University Press, UK, pp 311–353Google Scholar
  136. Salvo M (2009) Western wildlife under hoof: public lands livestock grazing threatens iconic species. Wild Earth Guardians, ChandlerGoogle Scholar
  137. Sankey JB, Germino MJ, Glenn NF (2009) Aeolian sediment transport following wildfire in sagebrush steppe. J Arid Environ 73:912–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Seavy NE, Gardali T, Golet GH, Griggs FT, Howell CA, Kelsey R, Small SL, Viers JH, Weigand JF (2009) Why climate change makes riparian restoration more important than ever: recommendations for practice and research. Ecol Restor 27:330–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sedell JR, Beschta RL (1991) Bringing back the “bio” in bioengineering. Am Fish Soc Symp 10:160–175Google Scholar
  140. Shepperd WD, Binkley D, Bartos DL, Stohlgren TJ, Eskew LJ (compilers) (2001) Sustaining aspen in western landscapes: symposium proceedings. US Forest Service RMRS-P-18, Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  141. Soulé ME, Estes JA, Berger J, Martinez Del Rio C (2003) Ecological effectiveness: conservation goals for interactive species. Conserv Biol 17:1238–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Soulé ME, Estes JA, Miller B, Honnold DL (2005) Strongly interacting species: conservation policy, management, and ethics. Bioscience 55:168–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Steinfeld H, Gerber P, Wassenaar T, Castel V, Rosales M, de Haan C (2006) Livestock’s long shadow: environmental issues and options. Food and Agriculture Organization, United NationsGoogle Scholar
  144. Swanson ME, Franklin JF, Beschta RL, Crisafulli CM, DellaSala D, Hutto RL, Lindenmayer DB, Swanston F (2011) The forgotten stage of forest succession: early-successional ecosystems on forest sites. Front Ecol Environ 9:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Thomas CD, Cameron A, Green RF, and 16 others (2004) Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427:145–148Google Scholar
  146. Thornton PK, Herrero M (2010) The inter-linkages between rapid growth in livestock production, climate change, and the impacts on water resources, land use, and deforestation. World Bank, Policy Research Paper 5178, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  147. Torrell LA, Rimbey NR, Bartlett ET, Van Tassell LW, Tanaka JA (2001) An evaluation of the PRIA grazing fee formula. Current issues in rangeland resource economics: symposium proceedings. Western Regional Coordinating Committee on Rangeland Economics WCC-55. New Mexico State University Research Report Series 737, Las Cruces, New MexicoGoogle Scholar
  148. Trimble SW, Mendel AC (1995) The cow as a geomorphic agent, a critical review. Geomorphology 13:233–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Valone TJ, Meyer M, Brown JH, Chew RM (2002) Timescale of perennial grass recovery in desertified arid grasslands following livestock removal. Conserv Biol 16:995–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Vincent CH (2012) Grazing fees: overview and issues. Congressional Research Service RS21232, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  151. Weisberg PJ, Coughenour MB (2003) Model-based assessment of aspen responses to elk herbivory in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA. Environ Manage 32:152–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Welch BL (2005) Big sagebrush: a sea fragmented into lakes, ponds, and puddles. US Forest Service GTR-RMRS-GTR-144, Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  153. Westerling AL, Hidalgo HG, Cayan DR, Swetnam TW (2006) Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfire activity. Science 313:940–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wilcove DS, Rothstein D, Dubow J, Phillips A, Losos E (1998) Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. Bioscience 48:607–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Worster D (1992) Under western skies: nature and history in the American west. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  156. WSWC (Western States Water Council) (1989) Preliminary summary of findings, In: Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Workshop, Midvale, Utah, pp 25–28Google Scholar
  157. Wu L, He N, Wang Y, Han X (2008) Storage and dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in soil after grazing exclusion in Leymus chinensis grasslands of northern China. J Environ Qual 37:663–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert L. Beschta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Debra L. Donahue
    • 2
  • Dominick A. DellaSala
    • 3
  • Jonathan J. Rhodes
    • 4
  • James R. Karr
    • 5
  • Mary H. O’Brien
    • 6
  • Thomas L. Fleischner
    • 7
  • Cindy Deacon Williams
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Forest Ecosystems and SocietyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.College of LawUniversity of WyomingLaramieUSA
  3. 3.Geos InstituteAshlandUSA
  4. 4.Planeto Azul HydrologyPortlandUSA
  5. 5.SequimUSA
  6. 6.Grand Canyon TrustCastle ValleyUSA
  7. 7.Environmental Studies, Prescott CollegePrescottUSA
  8. 8.Environmental ConsultantsMedfordUSA

Personalised recommendations