Advertisement

Environmental Management

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 577–587 | Cite as

Geographic Profiling to Assess the Risk of Rare Plant Poaching in Natural Areas

  • John A. Young
  • Frank T. van Manen
  • Cindy A. Thatcher
Article

Abstract

We demonstrate the use of an expert-assisted spatial model to examine geographic factors influencing the poaching risk of a rare plant (American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L.) in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA. Following principles of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), we identified a hierarchy of 11 geographic factors deemed important to poaching risk and requested law enforcement personnel of the National Park Service to rank those factors in a series of pair-wise comparisons. We used those comparisons to determine statistical weightings of each factor and combined them into a spatial model predicting poaching risk. We tested the model using 69 locations of previous poaching incidents recorded by law enforcement personnel. These locations occurred more frequently in areas predicted by the model to have a higher risk of poaching than random locations. The results of our study can be used to evaluate resource protection strategies and to target law enforcement activities.

Keywords

American ginseng Geospatial Model AHP Geographic profiling Poaching 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This project was funded by the National Park Service, Natural Resources Protection Program through the Appalachian Chain Demonstration Project. We thank E. Clark, J. Yorkey, D. Hurlbert, W. Cass, and A. Williams of the NPS and K. Johnson of the Institute for Conservation Law Enforcement at James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia for project guidance, assistance with implementing surveys, and access to data. We also thank the conservation law enforcement rangers of the NPS for participation in the survey. We thank A. Rafter for gathering data and assisting in early versions of this modeling exercise. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the United States Government.

References

  1. Ananda J (2007) Implementing participatory decision making in forest planning. Environmental Management 39:534–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ananda J, Herath G (2009) A critical review of multi-criteria decision making methods with special reference to forest management and planning. Ecological Economics 68:2535–2548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson RC, Fralish JS, Armstrong JE, Benjamin PK (1993) The ecology and biology of Panax quinquefolium L. (Araliaceae) in Illinois. American Midland Naturalist 129:357–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson RC, Anderson MR, Houseman G (2002) Wild American ginseng. Native Plants Journal 3:93–104Google Scholar
  5. Chavez DJ, Tynon JF (2000) Triage law enforcement: Societal impacts on National Forests in the West. Environmental Management 26:403–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark JD, Dunn JE, Smith KG (1993) A multivariate model of female black bear habitat use for a geographic information system. Journal of Wildlife Management 57:519–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clarke RV, Eck J (2003) Become a problem solving crime analyst in 55 small steps. Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, University College London, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Clevenger AP, Wierzchowski J, Chruszcz B, Gunson K (2002) GIS-generated, expert–based models for identifying wildlife habitat linkages and planning mitigation passages. Conservation Biology 16:503–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Diaz-Balteiro L, Romero C (2008) Making forestry decisions with multiple criteria: A review and assessment. Forest Ecology and Management 255:3222–3241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dobson A, Lynes L (2008) How does poaching affect the size of national parks? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23:177–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eastman JR, Jin W, Kyem PAK, Toledano J (1995) Raster procedures for multi-criteria/multi-objective decisions. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 61:539–547Google Scholar
  12. Eck JE, Chainey S, Cameron JG, Leitner M, Wilson RE (2005) Mapping crime: understanding hot spots. National Institute of Justice, US Department of Justice, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  13. Fanslow RA, Bramel T, McIntyre L, Maher C (2005) American ginseng and the idea of the commons. American memory series, tending the commons: folklife and landscape in southern West Virginia, US Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/tending/essay1a.html. Accessed online 23 Sept 2010
  14. Forsyth CJ, Marckese TA (1993) Folk outlaws: vocabularies of motives. International Review of Modern Sociology 23:17–31Google Scholar
  15. Forsyth CJ, Gramling R, Wooddell D (1998) The game of poaching: folk crimes in Southwest Louisiana. Society and Natural Resources 11:25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gavin MC, Soloman JM, Blank SG (2010) Measuring and monitoring illegal use of natural resources. Conservation Biology 24:89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harries K (1999) Mapping crime: principle and practice. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  18. Hilborn RH, Arcese P, Borner M, Hando J, Hopcraft G, Loibooki M, Mduma S, Sinclair ARE (2006) Effective enforcement in a conservation area. Science 314:1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jenness J (2003) Mahalanobis distances (mahalanobis.avx) extension for ArcView 3.x, Jenness Enterprises. http://www.jennessent.com/arcview/mahalanobis.htm. Accessed online 15 March 2011
  20. Jiang H, Eastman JR (2000) Application of fuzzy measures in multi-criteria evaluation in GIS. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 14:173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kangas J, Leskinen P (2005) Modelling ecological expertise for forest planning calculations-rationale, examples, and pitfalls. Journal of Environmental Management 76:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kuusipalo J, Kangas J (1994) Managing biodiversity in a forestry environment. Conservation Biology 8:450–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li W, Wang Z, Tang H (1999) Designing the buffer zone of a nature reserve: a case study in Yancheng biosphere reserve, China. Biological Conservation 90:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Malczewski J (2004) GIS-based land-use suitability analysis: a critical overview. Progress in Planning 62:3–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Malczewski J (2006) GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis: a survey of the literature. International Journal of Geographic Information Science 20:703–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Marinoni O (2004) Implementation of the analytical hierarchy process with VBA in ArcGIS. Computers and Geosciences 30:637–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Müller D, Mburu J (2009) Forecasting hotspots of forest clearing in Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya. Forest Ecology and Management 257:968–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mustajoki J, Hämäläinen RP (2000) Web-HIPRE: global decision support by value tree and AHP analysis. Information Systems and Operational Research 38:208–220Google Scholar
  29. O’Conner Shelley T, Crow MS (2009) The nature and extent of conservation policing: Law enforcement generalists or conservation specialists? American Journal of Criminal Justice 34:9–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pendleton MR (1998) Policing the park: understanding soft enforcement. Journal of Leisure Research 30:552–571Google Scholar
  31. Pendleton MR (2000) Leisure, crime, and cops: exploring a paradox of our civility. Journal of Leisure Research 32:111–115Google Scholar
  32. Saaty TL (1977) A scaling method for priorities in hierarchical structures. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 15:234–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saaty TL (1980) The Analytic Hierarchy Process. Planning, priority Setting, resource allocation. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Saaty TL (2008) Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. International Journal of Services Sciences 1:83–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Store R, Jokimaeki J (2003) A GIS-based multi-scale approach to habitat suitability modeling. Ecological Modelling 169:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Store R, Kangas J (2001) Integrating spatial multi-criteria evaluation and expert knowledge for GIS-based habitat suitability modelling. Landscape and Urban Planning 55:79–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Suits SA, Corbit RM, Wood AJ (2003) American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.), the “other” ginseng. Economic Botany 57:143–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thatcher CA, van Manen FT, Clark JD (2006) Identifying suitable sites for Florida panther reintroduction. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:752–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Thirumalaivasan D, Karmegam M, Venugopal K (2003) AHP-DRASTIC: software for specific aquifer vulnerability assessment using DRASTIC model and GIS. Environmental Modelling and Software 18:645–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tran LT, Knight RV, CG O’Neill, Smith ER, Riitters KH, Wickham J (2002) Fuzzy decision analysis for integrated environmental vulnerability assessment of the mid-Atlantic region. Environmental Management 29:45–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tynon JF, Chavez DJ (2006) Crime in National Forests: a call for research. Journal of Forestry 140:154–157Google Scholar
  42. van Manen FT, Young JA, Thatcher CA, Cass WB, Ulrey C (2005) Habitat models to assist plant protection efforts in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA. Natural Areas Journal 25:339–350Google Scholar
  43. Voogd H (1983) Multicriteria evaluation for urban and regional planning. Pion, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. Wing MG, Tynon J (2006) Crime and spatial analysis in National Forests. 2006. Journal of Forestry 103:293–298Google Scholar
  45. Wolfslehner B, Vacik H, Lexer MJ (2005) Application of the analytic network process in multi-criteria analysis of sustainable forest management. Forest Ecology and Management 207:157–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wynveen CJ, Bixler RD, Hammitt WE (2006) Urban encroachment brings deviant behavior to resource recreation areas. In: Burns R, Robinson K (compilers), Proceedings of the 2006 north eastern recreation symposium, General Technical Report NRS-P-14, US Forest Service Northern Research Station, pp 566–573Google Scholar
  47. Wynveen CJ, Bixler RD, Hammitt WE (2007) Law enforcement perceptions and changes in the United States Park Service: urban proximity and level of enforcement practices. Annals of Leisure Research 10:532–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • John A. Young
    • 1
  • Frank T. van Manen
    • 2
  • Cindy A. Thatcher
    • 3
  1. 1.USGS, Leetown Science CenterKearneysvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Forestry, Wildlife and FisheriesUSGS, Leetown Science Center, Southern Appalachian Research Branch, University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  3. 3.USGS National Wetlands Research CenterLafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations