Advertisement

Environmental Management

, Volume 47, Issue 4, pp 644–655 | Cite as

Marine Conservation and Accession: The Future for the Croatian Adriatic

  • Peter MackelworthEmail author
  • Draško Holcer
  • Jelena Jovanović
  • Caterina Fortuna
Article

Abstract

The European Union (EU) is the world’s largest trading bloc and the most influential supra-national organisation in the region. The EU has been the goal for many eastern European States, for Croatia accession remains a priority and underpins many of its national policies. However, entry into the EU requires certain commitments and concessions. In October 2003 the Croatian parliament declared an ecological and fisheries protection zone in the Adriatic. Under pressure the zone was suspended, finally entering into force in March 2008 exempting EU States. There are other marine conflicts between Croatia and the EU, particularly the contested maritime border with Slovenia, and the development of the Croatian fishing fleet in opposition to the Common Fisheries Policy. Conversely, attempts to harmonise Croatian Nature Protection with the EU Habitats Directive, facilitated by pre-accession funding, has galvanised conservation policy. Since 2005 two marine protected areas have been declared, significantly increasing the marine ecosystem under protection. Finally, the development of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the latest EU attempt to integrate environmental policy in the maritime realm. This will have an effect not only on member States but neighbouring countries. For marine nature protection to be effective in the region the Adriatic Sea needs to be viewed as a mutually important shared and limited resource not a bargaining chip. Negotiations of the EU and Croatia have been watched closely by the other Balkan States and precedents set in this case have the potential to affect EU expansion to the East.

Keywords

Croatia Globalisation Accession Marine conservation MPAs 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank colleagues working in various institutions and NGOs from around the Mediterranean who made comments upon this article in previous drafts. In addition the authors would like to thank the three anonymous reviewers for their comments. Parts of this project were financed by 2006 EU PHARE programme for Croatia and The National Foundation for Civil Society Development of the Republic of Croatia, the opinions expressed here are the sole responsibility of the authors and can in no way be taken to reflect the views funding organisations.

References

  1. Aksentijević N, Bogović N (2002) Coastal zone management of the Republic of Croatia. Littoral 2002, the changing coast. EUROCOAST/EUCC, Porto, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnaut D (2002) Stormy waters on the way to the high seas: the case of the territorial sea delimitation between Croatia and Slovenia. Ocean and Coastal Law Journal 21:1–39Google Scholar
  3. Avbelj M, Černič J (2007) The conundrum of the Piran Bay: Slovenia v. Croatia–the case of maritime delimitation. Journal of International Law and Policy V(6):1–19Google Scholar
  4. Belfiore S (1996) The role of the European community in the Mediterranean coastal zone management. Ocean and Coastal Management 31(2–3):219–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bertović S, Kamenarović M, Kevo R (1961) The protection of nature in Croatia, pp 188Google Scholar
  6. Bojkov V (2004) Neither here, not there: Bulgaria and Romania in current European politics. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 37:509–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borja A (2006) The new European marine strategy directive: difficulties, opportunities, and challenges. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:239–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cacaud P (2005) Fisheries law and regulations in the Mediterranean: a comparative study. General fisheries commission for the Mediterranean studies and reviews. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome. No. 75, pp 58Google Scholar
  9. Chevalier C (2004) Governance in the Mediterranean Sea, legal regime and prospectives. IUCN Centre for Mediterranean Cooperation, pp 25Google Scholar
  10. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (1992) Council Directive 92/43/EEC of the European parliament and of the council: on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora, pp 66Google Scholar
  11. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2002) Communication for the commission: laying down a community action plan for the conservation and sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources in the Mediterranean Sea under the common fisheries policy. Brussels 09.10.2002 COM (2002) 535 Final, pp 37Google Scholar
  12. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2003) Commission Regulation (EC) No 1438/2003 laying down implementing rules on the community fleet policy as defined in Chapter III of Council Regulation (EC) No 2371/2002, pp 9Google Scholar
  13. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2004) Communication from the commission: opinion on Croatia’s application for membership of the European Union. COM (2004) 257 Final, pp 129Google Scholar
  14. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2005) Commission staff working document: Croatia 2005 Progress Report. SEC (2005) 1424, pp 117Google Scholar
  15. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2006a) Towards a future maritime policy for the Union: a European vision for the oceans and seas. Report 275, pp 49Google Scholar
  16. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2006b) Communication for the commission to the European parliament and the council: enlargement strategy and main challenges 2006–2007. Including annexed special report on the EU’s capacity to integrate new members. COM (2006) 649 final, pp 59Google Scholar
  17. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2006c) Commission staff working document: Croatia 2006 Progress Report. SEC (2006) 1385, pp 70Google Scholar
  18. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2006d) The European fisheries fund 2007–2013, pp 14Google Scholar
  19. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2007a) Commission staff working document: Croatia 2007 progress report. SEC (2007) 1431, pp 70Google Scholar
  20. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2007b) Communication from the commission to the European parliament and the council: enlargement strategy and main challenges 2007–2008. COM (2007) 663, pp 61Google Scholar
  21. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2007c) An integrated maritime policy for the European Union. Report 575, pp 14Google Scholar
  22. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2008) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European parliament and of the council: establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy. Marine Strategy Framework Directive, pp 22Google Scholar
  23. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2009) Reform of the common fisheries policy. COM (2009) 163 final, pp 28Google Scholar
  24. Cruz I, McLaughlin R (2008) Contrasting marine policies in the United States, Mexico, Cuba and the European Union: searching for an integrated strategy for the Gulf of Mexico region. Ocean and Coastal Management 51:826–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cvrtila V (2000) Croatia–the “gateway” to Southeast Europe. Politička misao 37(5):150–159Google Scholar
  26. De Vivero J, Mateos J (2006) Maritime Europe and EU enlargement. A geopolitical perspective. Marine Policy 30:167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Deutsche Presse Agentur ((DPA) Germany National News Agency) (2006) Croatia remains on collision course with EU over Adriatic eco-zone. http://social.moldova.org/news/croatia-remains-on-collision-course-with-eu-over-adriatic-ecozone-21570-eng.html. Accessed 16th Dec 2006
  28. Deutsche Presse Agentur ((DPA) Germany National News Agency) (2007) Croatia provokes EU fishing row. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7166008.stm. 12th March 2009
  29. Elliot ED (1991) A cabin on the mountain: reflections on the distributional consequences of environmental protection programs. Kansas Journal of Law and Public Policy 5–7Google Scholar
  30. Frost H, Andersen P (2006) The common fisheries policy of the European Union and fisheries economics. Marine Policy 30:737–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Government of the Republic of Croatia (2008) Barroso says target date for completing Croatia’s EU talks autumn 2009. Press release, 13th March 2008. http://www.vlada.hr/en/naslovnica/novosti_i_najave/2008/ozujak/barroso_ciljni_datum_zavrsetka_pregovora_s_rh_jesen_2009. Accessed 10th Jan 2009
  32. Juda L (2007) The European Union and ocean use management: the marine strategy and the maritime policy. Ocean Development and International Law 38:259–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kladnik D, Pipan P (2008) Bay of Piran or Bay of Savudrija? Acta geographica Slovenica 48(2):57–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Klemenčić M, Schofield C (1996) Croatia and Slovenia: the ‘Four Hamlets’ case. Maritime Briefings 1(8):19–33Google Scholar
  35. Letica B (2004) Europe’s Second chance: European Union enlargement to Croatia and the Western Balkans. World Affairs 28(2):209–230Google Scholar
  36. Lindstrom N (2003) Between Europe and the Balkans: mapping Slovenia and Croatia’s ‘return to Europe’ in the 1990’s. Dialectical Anthropology 27:313–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mackelworth P, Carić H (2010) Gatekeepers of island communities: exploring the pillars of sustainable development. Environment, Development and Sustainability (in press)Google Scholar
  38. Massey G, Hodson R, Sekulić D (2003) Nationalism, liberalism and liberal nationalism in post-war Croatia. Nations and Nationalism 9(1):55–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Official Gazette of the Republic of Croatia (2003) Decision on the extension of the jurisdiction of the Republic of Croatia in the Adriatic SeaGoogle Scholar
  40. Ørebech P (2004) The Fisheries Issues of the 2004 Second European accession treaty: a comparison with the 1994 first accession treaty. The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 19(2):93–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Par V, Lovrinov M, Njavro M (2007) Croatian Fishery–harmonisation of regulations and how to access the EU? Agriculture: Scientific and Professional Review 13(1):9–13Google Scholar
  42. Petrak M (2006) Should Croatia declare an exclusive economic zone. Pravnik 40:123–135Google Scholar
  43. Pipan P (2008) Border dispute between Croatia and Slovenia along the lower reaches of the Dragonja River. Acta geographica Slovenica 48(2):331–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rehn O (2009) Future of EU enlargement in south-east Europe. EU observer conference Western Balkans, Brussels, 3 March 2009Google Scholar
  45. Republic of Croatia (2009) Fourth national report of the Republic of Croatia to the convention on biological diversity, pp 118Google Scholar
  46. Rudolf R (2008) Europska Unija I Očuvanje Ribljih Bogatstava U Jadranu (The European Union and preservation of fishery resources in the Adriatic). Zbornik radova Pravnog fakulteta u Splitu 45:779–795Google Scholar
  47. Salomon M (2009) Recent European initiatives in marine protection policy: towards lasting protection for Europe’s seas? Environmental Science and Policy 12:359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Samardžija V (2003) Croatia’s preparation for EU accession. Report Global Development Network, November 2003Google Scholar
  49. Sanader I (2004) Speech quoted in Croatian News Agency (HINA). 4th June 2004Google Scholar
  50. Sand P (2007) ‘Green’ Enclosure of Ocean Space–Déjà Vu? Marine Pollution Bulletin 54:374–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schimmelfennig F (2008) EU political accession conditionality after the 2004 enlargement: consistency and effectiveness. Journal of European Public Policy 15(6):918–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Scott J (2005) The EU and ‘Wider Europe’: toward an alternative geopolitics of regional cooperation? Geopolitics 10:429–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sedelmeier U (2008) After conditionality: post-accession compliance with EU law in East Central Europe. Journal of European Public Policy 15(6):806–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. United Nations Law of the Sea Bulletin (2004) the extension of the jurisdiction of the Republic of Croatia in the Adriatic Sea. Narodnie Novine No. 157/03. UNLSB 53, p 68Google Scholar
  55. United Nations Law of the Sea Bulletin (2005) Geographical coordinates of the extension of the jurisdiction of the Republic of Croatia in the Adriatic Sea. Narodnie Novine No. 157/03. UNLSB 59, p 28Google Scholar
  56. van Hoof L, van Tatenhove J (2009) EU policy on the move: tension between fisheries and maritime policy. Marine Policy 33:726–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vidacović P (1997) National parks in the world, pp 537Google Scholar
  58. Vidas D (2008) The UN convention on the law of the sea, the European Union and the rule of law. What is going on with the Adriatic Sea? Fridtjof Nansen Institute Report, Norway, pp 66Google Scholar
  59. Vlašić I, Vlašić Feketija M (2006) The importance of environmental protection: Croatia in the European Union accession process. In: Ott K (ed) Croatian accession to the European Union: the challenges of participation. Institute of Public Finance: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Zagreb, pp 321–346Google Scholar
  60. Williams N (2007) Seeking a sea change. Current Biology 17:184–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Mackelworth
    • 1
    Email author
  • Draško Holcer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jelena Jovanović
    • 1
  • Caterina Fortuna
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Blue World Institute of Marine Research and ConservationVeli LošinjCroatia
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyCroatian Natural History MuseumZagrebCroatia
  3. 3.Institute for Environmental Protection and ResearchRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations