Skip to main content

Spatial Variability of Groundwater Depth and Quality Parameters in the National Capital Territory of Delhi

Abstract

The groundwater quantity and quality scenario is of much concern in the National Capital Territory of Delhi, India, which necessitates an investigation to envisage the extent of spatial variability of groundwater depth and pollutant concentration levels in this region. Therefore, in this study, an effort was made to generate the spatial variability map of groundwater depth and quality parameters (viz. chloride, electrical conductivity, fluoride, magnesium, and nitrate). Ordinary kriging was used to analyze the spatial variability of groundwater depth and quality parameters, whereas indicator kriging was used to analyze groundwater quality parameters equal to or greater than the pollution threshold values. It was observed that the semivariogram parameters fitted well in the exponential model for water depth and in the spherical model for water quality parameters. The generated spatial variability maps indicated that in 43% of the study area, groundwater depth was within 20 m. The salinity level was higher than 2.5 dS m−1 in 69% of the study area and the nitrate concentration exceeded 45 mg l−1 in 36% of the area. The probability maps showed that about 24% of the area had the highest probability (0.8–1.0) of exceedence of the threshold electrical conductivity value and an area of 2% exhibited the highest probability of exceedence of the threshold value of nitrate concentration in the groundwater. The generated spatial variability and probability maps will assist water resource managers and policymakers in development of guidelines in judicious management of groundwater resources for agricultural and drinking purposes in the study area.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Araghinejad S, Burn DH (2005) Probabilistic forecasting of hydrological events using geostatistical analysis. Hydrological Sciences Journal 50:837–856

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bierkens MFP, Burrough PA (1993a) The indicator approach to categorical soil data: I. Theory. European Journal of Soil Science 44:361–368

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bierkens MFP, Burrough PA (1993b) The indicator approach to categorical soil data: II. Application to mapping and land use suitability analysis. European Journal of Soil Science 44:369–381

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bureau of Indian Standards (1991) Specification for drinking water. Bureau of Indian standards publ. no. IS:10500. Manak Bhawan, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  5. Burgess TM, Webster R (1980) Optimal interpolation and isarithmic mapping of soil properties. I: The semivariogram and punctual kriging. Journal of Soil Science 31:315–331

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Central Ground Water Board (2006) Ground water year book of national capital of territory, Delhi. Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  7. Central Pollution Control Board (2001) Report on water quality status of lakes and reservoirs in Delhi. CPCB, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  8. Central Water Commission (2006) Water and related statistics. Central water commission, Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  9. Chambers R (1988) Managing canal irrigation: practical analysis from south Asia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  10. Cressie NAC (1993) Statistics for spatial data. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  11. Das BK, Kakar YP, Moser H, Stichler W (1988) Deuterium and oxygen-18 studies in groundwater of the Delhi area, India. Journal of Hydrology 98:133–146

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Datta PS, Tyagi SK (1996) Major ion chemistry of groundwater in Delhi area: chemical weathering processes and groundwater flow regime. Journal of Geological Society of India 47:179–188

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Datta PS, Bhattacharya SK, Tyagi SK (1996) 18O studies on recharge of phreatic aquifers and groundwater flow paths of mixing in the Delhi area. Journal of Hydrology 176:25–36

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Datta PS, Deb DL, Tyagi SK (1997) Assessment of groundwater contamination from fertilizers in the Delhi area based on 18O, NO3 and K+ composition. Journal of Contaminated Hydrology 27:249–262

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Dhawan BD (1989) Studies in irrigation and water management. Commonwealth, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  16. Ella VB, Melvin SW, Kanwar RS (2001) Spatial analysis of NO3–N concentration in glacial till. Transactions of American Society of Agricultural Engineering 44:317–327

    Google Scholar 

  17. Germann U, Joss J (2001) Variograms of radar reflectivity to describe the spatial continuity of alpine precipitation. Journal of Applied Meteorology 40:1042–1059

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Goovaerts P (1997) Geostatistics for natural resource evaluation. Oxford University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  19. Goovaerts P, AvRuskin G, Meiliker J, Slotnick M, Jacquez G, Nriagu J (2005) Geostatistical modeling of the spatial variability of arsenic in groundwater of southeast Michigan. Water Resources Research 41:1–19

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Gotway CA, Feruson RB, Hergert GW, Peterson TA (1996) Comparison of kriging and inverse distance methods for mapping soil parameters. Soil Science Society America Journal 60:1237–1247

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Halvorson JJ, Smith JL, Bolton H Jr, Rossi RE (1995) Evaluating shrub-associated spatial patterns of soil properties in a shrub-steppe ecosystem using multiple-variable geostatistics. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59:1476–1487

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Hu K, Huang Y, Li H, Li B, Chen D, White RE (2005) Spatial variability of shallow groundwater level, electrical conductivity and nitrate concentration, and risk assessment of nitrate contamination in North China Plain. Environment International 31:896–903

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Isaaks EH, Srivastava RM (1989) An introduction to applied geostatistics. Oxford University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  24. Johnston K, Hoef JMV, Krivoruchko K, Lucas N (1996) Using ArcGIS geostatistical analyst. GIS user manual. ESRI, New York, pp 120–187

    Google Scholar 

  25. Journel AG, Huijbregts CJ (1978) Mining geostatistics. Academic Press, London

    Google Scholar 

  26. Juang KW, Lee DY (2000) Comparison of three nonparametric kriging methods for delineating heavy-metal contaminated soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 29:197–205

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Juang KW, Liou DC, Lee DY (2002) Site specific application based on the kriging fertilizer—phosphorus availability index of soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 31:1248–1255

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Kumar M, Ramanathan AL, Rao MS (2006) Identification and evaluation of hydrogeochemical processes in the groundwater environment of Delhi, India. Environmental Geology 50:1025–1039

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Kumar A, Sarangi A, Singh OP, Sahoo RN, Singh AK (2007) Spatial modelling of soil salinity for impact assessment of subsurface drainage system. Journal of Agricultural Engineering 44:1–7

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Lee J, Jang CH, Wang SW, Liu CH (2007) Evaluation of potential health risk of arsenic affected groundwater using indicator kriging and dose response model. Science of Total Environment 384:151–162

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Liu CW, Jang CS, Liao CM (2004) Evaluation of arsenic contamination potential using indicator kriging in the Yun-Lin aquifer (Taiwan). Science of Total Environment 321:173–188

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Maity P (2006) Spatial variability analysis of penetration resistance of IARI farm to delineate compact zones. M.Sc. thesis, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi

  33. Merino GG, Jones D, Stooksbury DE, Hubbard KG (2001) Determination of semivariogram models to krige hourly and daily solar irradiance in Western Nebraska. Journal of Applied Meteorology 40:1085–1094

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Ministry of Finance (2008) Economic survey. Government of India, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  35. Sarangi A, Cox CA, Madramootoo CA (2005) Geostatistical methods for prediction of spatial variability of rainfall in a mountainous region. Transactions of American Society of Agricultural Engineering 48:943–954

    Google Scholar 

  36. Sarangi A, Madramootoo CA, Enright P (2006) Comparison of spatial variability techniques for runoff estimation from a Canadian watershed. Biosystem Engineering 95:295–308

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Sett DN (1965) Groundwater geology of the Delhi region. Bulletin of Geological Survey of India Series B 16:1–35

    Google Scholar 

  38. Smith JL, Halvorson JJ, Papendick RI (1993) Using multiple-variable indicator kriging for evaluating soil quality. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57:743–749

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. USEPA (1995) Drinking water regulations and health advisories. Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  40. Wadia DN (1981) Geology of India. Tata McGraw-Hill Press, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  41. Webster R, Oliver MA (2001) Geostatistics for environmental scientists. Wiley, Chichester, pp 225–271

    Google Scholar 

  42. World Health Organization (2006) Guidelines for drinking water quality. First addendum to third edition. Vol 1. Recommendation, 3rd edn. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge the help rendered by Dr. G. C. Saha, Officer in Charge, State Unit Office, Delhi, Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), for providing groundwater table depth and quality data of the NCT for the desired period to undertake the analysis.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. Sarangi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Dash, J.P., Sarangi, A. & Singh, D.K. Spatial Variability of Groundwater Depth and Quality Parameters in the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Environmental Management 45, 640–650 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-010-9436-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Geostatistics
  • Groundwater quality
  • Indicator kriging
  • Drinking water standard
  • Ordinary kriging
  • Semivariogram