Environmental Management

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 451–462 | Cite as

Control Strategy Optimization for Attainment and Exposure Mitigation: Case Study for Ozone in Macon, Georgia

  • Daniel S. CohanEmail author
  • Di Tian
  • Yongtao Hu
  • Armistead G. Russell


Implementation of more stringent 8-hour ozone standards has led the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to designate nonattainment status to 474 counties nationwide, many of which had never previously violated air quality standards. As states select emission control measures to achieve attainment in these regions, their choices pose significant implications to local economies and the health of their citizens. Considering a case study of one such nonattainment region, Macon, Georgia, we develop a menu of potential controls that could be implemented locally or in neighboring parts of the state. The control menu offers the potential to control about 20–35% of ozone precursor emissions in most Georgia regions, but marginal costs increase rapidly beyond 15–20%. We link high-order ozone sensitivities with the control menu to identify cost-optimized strategies for achieving attainment and for alternative goals such as reducing spatially averaged or population-weighted ozone concentrations. Strategies targeted toward attainment of Macon ozone would prioritize local reductions of nitrogen oxides, whereas controls in the more densely populated Atlanta region are shown to be more effective for reducing statewide potential population exposure to ozone. A U.S. EPA-sanctioned approach for demonstrating ozone attainment with photochemical models is shown to be highly dependent on the choice of a baseline period and may not foster optimal strategies for assuring attainment and protecting human health.


Air pollution Attainment strategies Photochemical modeling Atmospheric sensitivity analysis Ozone Cost optimization 



This research was conducted as part of the Fall-line Air Quality Study, with funding from the State of Georgia. Larry Sorrels (U.S. EPA) provided AirControlNET software and guidance on its use. Tom Shillock (Georgia Environmental Protection Division) created the Georgia regions map.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel S. Cohan
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Di Tian
    • 2
  • Yongtao Hu
    • 2
  • Armistead G. Russell
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.School of Civil and Environmental EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Environmental Protection DivisionGeorgia Department of Natural ResourcesAtlantaUSA

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