Environmental Management

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 231–246 | Cite as

Control of Tamarix in the Western United States: Implications for Water Salvage, Wildlife Use, and Riparian Restoration

  • Patrick B. Shafroth
  • James R. Cleverly
  • Tom L. Dudley
  • John P. Taylor
  • Charles VAN RiperIII
  • Edwin P. Weeks
  • James N. Stuart
Article

Abstract

Non-native shrub species in the genus Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk) have colonized hundreds of thousands of hectares of floodplains, reservoir margins, and other wetlands in western North America. Many resource managers seek to reduce saltcedar abundance and control its spread to increase the flow of water in streams that might otherwise be lost to evapotranspiration, to restore native riparian (streamside) vegetation, and to improve wildlife habitat. However, increased water yield might not always occur and has been substantially lower than expected in water salvage experiments, the potential for successful revegetation is variable, and not all wildlife taxa clearly prefer native plant habitats over saltcedar. As a result, there is considerable debate surrounding saltcedar control efforts. We review the literature on saltcedar control, water use, wildlife use, and riparian restoration to provide resource managers, researchers, and policy-makers with a balanced summary of the state of the science. To best ensure that the desired outcomes of removal programs are met, scientists and resource managers should use existing information and methodologies to carefully select and prioritize sites for removal, apply the most appropriate and cost-effective control methods, and then rigorously monitor control efficacy, revegetation success, water yield changes, and wildlife use.

Keywords

Tamarix Saltcedar Tamarisk Evapotranspiration Water salvage Wildlife use Riparian restoration Revegetation Invasive species Exotic species Control 

Literature Cited

  1. American Society of Civil Engineers1996Hydrology handbookAmerican Society of Civil EngineersNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen, D. C., Nelson, S. M. 1999Rodent use of anthropogenic and “natural” desert riparian habitat, Lower Colorado River, ArizonaRegulated Rivers: Research and Management15377393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, B. 1998The case for saltcedarRestoration & Management Notes16130134Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, B. W., and R. D. Ohmart. 1984. A vegetation management study for wildlife enhancement along the lower Colorado River. US Bureau of Reclamation. Lower Colorado Region. Boulder City, NevadaGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, B. W., A. Higgins, and R. D. Ohmart. 1977. Avian use of saltcedar communities in the lower Colorado River Valley. Pages 128–136 in R. R. Johnson and D. A. Jones (tech. coords). Importance, preservation, and management of riparian habitat. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-43. Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, B. W., Russell, P. E., Ohmart, R. D. 2004Riparian revegetation: an account of two decades of experience in the arid southwestAvvar BooksBlythe, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  7. Baldocchi, D., Rao, K. S. 1995Intra-field variability of scalar flux densities across a transition between a desert and an irrigated potato fieldBoundary-Layer Meteorology6109136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrows, C. 1998The case for wholesale removalRestoration & Management Notes16130134Google Scholar
  9. Baum, B. R. 1967Introduced and naturalized tamarisks in the United States and Canada (Tamaricaceae)Baileya151925Google Scholar
  10. Blossey, B. 1999Before, during and after: The need for long-term monitoring in invasive plant species managementBiological Invasions1301311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Briggs, M. K. 1996Riparian ecosystem restoration in arid lands: Strategies and referencesThe University of Arizona PressTucson, ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  12. Brock, J. H. 1994

    Tamarix spp. (salt cedar), an invasive exotic woody plant in arid and semi-arid riparian habitats of western USA

    de Waal, L. C.Chald, L. E.Wade, P. M.Brock, J. H. eds. Ecology and management of invasive riverside plantsJohn Wiley & SonsNew York2744
    Google Scholar
  13. Brown, B. T., Carothers, S. W., Johnson, R. R. 1987Grand Canyon birds (historical notes, natural history and ecology)The University of Arizona PressTucson, ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  14. Brunet, Y., Itier, B., Mcaneney, J., Lagouarde, J. P. 1994Downwind evolution of scalar fluxes and surface resistance under conditions of local advection. Part II: Measurements over barleyAgricultural and Forest Meteorology71227245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Busch, D.E., Smith, S. D. 1995Mechanisms associated with decline of woody species in riparian ecosystems of the southwestern U.SEcological Monographs65347350Google Scholar
  16. Cleverly, J. R., Smith, S. D., Sala, A., Devitt, D. A. 1997Invasive capacity of Tamarixramosissima in a Mojave Desert floodplain: The role of droughtOecologia1111218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cleverly, J. R., Dahm, C. N., Thibault, J. R, Gilroy, D. J., Allred Coonrod, J. E. 2002Seasonal estimates of actual evapo-transpiration from Tamarix ramosissima stands using three-dimensional eddy covarianceJournal of Arid Environments52181197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohan, D. R., B. W. Anderson, and R. D. Ohmart. 1978. Avian population responses to salt cedar along the lower Colorado River. Pages 371–382 in R. R. Johnson and J. F. McCormick (eds.) Strategies for protection and management of floodplain wetlands and other riparian ecosystems. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report WO-12. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooper, D., Eichinger, W., Archuleta, J., Hipps, L., Kao, J., Leclerc, M., Neale, C., Prueger, J. 2003Spatial source-area analysis of three-dimensional moisture fields from LIDAR, eddy covariance, and a footprint modelAgricultural and Forest Meteorology114213234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooper, D. I., Eichinger, W. E., Kao, J., Hipps, L., Reisner, J., Smith, S., Schaeffer, S. M., Williams, D. G. 2000Spatial and temporal properties of water vapor and latent energy flux over a riparian canopyAgricultural and Forest Meteorology105161183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cooper, D.J., Merritt, D.M., Andersen, D.C., Chimner, R.A. 1999Factors controlling the establishment of Fremont cottonwood seedlings on the upper Green River, USARegulated Rivers: Research and Management15419440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cox, J. R., Madrigal, R. M. 1988Establishing perennial grasses on abandoned farmland in southeastern ArizonaApplied Agricultural Research33643Google Scholar
  23. Cox, J. R., Madrigal, R. M., Frasier, G. W. 1989Survival of perennial grass transplants in the Sonoran Desert of the southwestern USAArid Soil Research and Rehabilitation17787Google Scholar
  24. Culler, R. C., R. L. Hanson, R. M. Myrick, R. M. Turner, and F. P. Kipple. 1982. Evapotranspiration before and after clearing phreatophytes, Gila River flood plain, Graham County, Arizona. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 655-P, 67 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Dahm, C. N., Cleverly, J. R., Coonrod, J. E. A., Thibault, J. R., McDonnell, D. E., Gilroy, D. J. 2002Evapotranspiration at the land/water interface in a semi-arid drainage basinFreshwater Biology47831843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. D’Antonio, C., Meyerson, L. A. 2002Exotic plant species as problems and solutions in ecological restoration: A synthesisRestoration Ecology10703713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DeGraaf, R. M., Rappole, J. H. 1995Neotropical migratory birds: Natural history, distribution, and population changeComstock Publishing Associates. Cornell University PressIthaca, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. DeLay, L., D. M. Finch, S. Brantley, R. Fagerlund, M.D. Means, and J.F. Kelly. 1999. Arthropods of native and exotic vegetation and their association with willow flycatchers and Wilson’s warblers. Pages 216–221 in D. M. Finch, J. C. Whitney, J. F. Kelly, and S. R. Loftin (tech. coords.). Rio Grande ecosystems: Linking land, water and people. Proceedings RMRS-P-7. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, UtahGoogle Scholar
  29. DeLoach, C. J., R. Carruthers, T. Dudley, D. Eberts, D. Kazmer, A. Knutson, D. Bean, J. Knight, P. Lewis, J. Tracy, J. Herr, G. Abbot, S. Prestwich, G. Adams, I. Mityaev, R. Jashenko, B. Li, R. Sobhian, A. Kirk, T. Robbins, and E. Delfosse. 2004. First results for control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in the open field in the western United States. In J. Cullen (ed.). XI International Symposium on the Biololgical Control of Weeds, Canberra, Australia. Google Scholar
  30. Devitt, D. A., Sala, A., Smith, S. D., Cleverly, J., Shaulis, L. K., Hammett, R. 1998Bowen ratio estimates of evapotranspiration for Tamarix ramosissima stands on the Virgin River in southern NevadaWater Resources Research3424072414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. DiTomasso, J. M. 1998Impact, biology, and ecology of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in the southwestern United StatesWeed Technology12326336Google Scholar
  32. Drexler, J. Z., Snyder, R. L., Spano, D., Paw U, K. T. 2004A review of models and micrometeorological methods used to estimate wetland evapotranspirationHydrological Processes1820712102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Drost, C. A., E. H. Paxton, M. K. Sogge, and M. J. Whitfield. 2001. Food habits of the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher. Final Report to US Bureau of Reclamation, Salt Lake City, UtahGoogle Scholar
  34. Dudley, T. L., and C. J. DeLoach. 2004. Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), endangered species and biological weed control-Can they mix? Weed Technology. (in press)Google Scholar
  35. Dudley, T. L., DeLoach, C. J., Lovich, J. E., Carruthers, R. I. 2000

    Saltcedar invasion of western riparian areas: impacts and new prospects for control

    McCabe, R. E.Loos, S. E. eds. Transactions of the 65th North American wildlife and natural resource conferenceWildlife Management InstituteWashington, DC345381
    Google Scholar
  36. Duncan, K. W. 2003. Individual plant treatment of saltcedar. Pages 121–125 in C. Hart (eds.) Proceeding of the Saltcedar and Water Resources in the West Symposium, July 16–17, 2003, San Angelo, TexasGoogle Scholar
  37. Duncan, K. W., McDaniel, K. C. 1998Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) management with imazapyrWeed Technology12337344Google Scholar
  38. Ellingson, A. R., Andersen, D. C. 2002Spatial correlations of Diceroprocta apache and its host plants: evidence for a negative impact from Tamarix invasionEcological Entomology271624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ellis, L. M. 1995Bird use of saltcedar and cottonwood vegetation in the Middle Rio Grande Valley of New MexicoJournal of Arid Environments30339349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ellis, L. M., Crawford, C. S., Molles, M. C. 1997Rodent communities in native and exotic riparian vegetation in the Middle Rio Grande Valley of central New MexicoSouthwestern Naturalist421319Google Scholar
  41. Ellis, L. M., Molles, M. C., Crawford, C. S., Heinzelmann, F. 2000Surface-active arthropod communities in native and exotic riparian vegetation in the middle Rio Grande Valley, New MexicoSouthwestern Naturalist45456471Google Scholar
  42. Everitt, B. L. 1980Ecology of saltcedar—A plea for researchEnvironmental Geology37784Google Scholar
  43. Everitt, B. L. 1998Chronology of the spread of tamarisk in the central Rio GrandeWetlands18658668Google Scholar
  44. Finch, D. M., and P. W. Stangel (eds.). 1992. Status and management of neotropical migratory birds. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-229. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  45. Finch, D. M., and S. H. Stoleson (eds.). 2000. Status, ecology, and conservation of the southwestern Willow Flycatcher. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-60. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, UtahGoogle Scholar
  46. Frasier, G. W., Cox, J. R., Wollhiser, D. A. 1985Emergence and survival responses of seven grasses for six wet-dry sequencesJournal of Range Management38372377Google Scholar
  47. Friedman, J. M., Scott, M. L., Lewis, W. M.,Jr 1995Restoration of riparian forest using irrigation, artificial disturbance, and natural seedfallEnvironmental Management19547557Google Scholar
  48. Gaskin, J. F., Schaal, B. A. 2002Hybrid Tamarix widespread in U. S. invasion and undetected in native Asian rangeProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA9911,25611,259Google Scholar
  49. Gatewood, J. S., T. W. Robinson, B. R. Colby, J. D. Helm, and L. C. Halpenny. 1950. Use of water by bottom-land vegetation in lower Safford Valley, Arizona. US Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1103, 210 ppGoogle Scholar
  50. Gay, L. W., Hartman, R. K. 1982ET measurements over riparian saltcedar on the Colorado RiverHydrology and Water Resources of Arizona and the Southwest12915Google Scholar
  51. Glinski, R. L., Ohmart, R. D. 1984Factors of reproduction and population densities in the Apache cicada (Diceroprocta apache)Southwestern Naturalist297379Google Scholar
  52. Graf, W. L. 1978Fluvial adjustments to the spread of tamarisk in the Colorado Plateau RegionGeological Society of America Bulletin8914911501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Graf, W. L. 1981Channel instability in a braided sand-bed riverWater Resources Research1710871094Google Scholar
  54. Graf, W. L. 1992Science, public policy, and western American riversTransactions of the Institute of British Geographers17519Google Scholar
  55. Hart, C. R. 2003. The Pecos river ecosystem project. Pages 153–159 in C. Hart (ed.) Proceedings of the Saltcedar and Water Resources in the West Symposium, July 16–17, 2003, San Angelo, TexasGoogle Scholar
  56. Healy, R. W., Cook, P. G. 2002Using groundwater levels to estimate rechargeHydrogeology Journal1091109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hink, V. C., and R. D. Ohmart. 1984. Middle Rio Grande biological survey. Final report to US Army Corps of Engineers, Contract No. DACW47-81-C-0015, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 193 pp. + appendicesGoogle Scholar
  58. Hobbs, R., Humphries, S. E. 1995An integrated approach to the ecology and management of plant invasionsConservation Biology6324337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Horton, J. L., Kolb, T. E., Hart, S. C. 2001Physiological response to groundwater depth varies among species and with river flow regulationEcological Applications1110461059Google Scholar
  60. Hughes, D. 2003. New Mexico saltcedar control project, report for July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003. Pages 161–168 in C. Hart (ed.) Proceedings of the Saltcedar and Water Resources in the West Symposium, July 16–17, 2003, San Angelo, TexasGoogle Scholar
  61. Hughes, F. M. R., Rood, S. B. 2003Allocation of river flows for restoration of floodplain forest ecosystems: A review of approaches and their applicability in EuropeEnvironmental Management321233CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hunter, W. C., Ohmart, R. D., Anderson, B. W. 1988Use of exotic saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis) by birds in arid riparian systemsCondor90113123Google Scholar
  63. Jackson, J., J. T. Ball, and M. R. Rose. 1990. Assessment of the salinity tolerance of eight Sonoran desert riparian trees and shrubs. Final Report, US Bureau of Reclamation Contract No. 9-CP-20-07170. Biological Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada System, Reno, NevadaGoogle Scholar
  64. Jackson, L., McAuliffe, J. R., Roundy, B. A. 1991Desert restoration: revegetation trials on abandoned farmland in the Sonoran desert lowlandsRestoration & Management Notes97180Google Scholar
  65. Jakle, M. D., and T. A. Gatz. 1985. Herpetofaunal use of four habitats of the middle Gila River drainage, Arizona. Pages 355–358 in R. R. Johnson, C. D. Ziebell, D. R. Patton, P. F. Ffolliott, and R. H. Hamre (tech. coords.). Riparian ecosystems and their management: Reconciling conflicting uses. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-120. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  66. Johnson, R. R., and L. T. Haight. 1985. Avian use of xeroriparian ecosystems in the North American warm desert. Pages 156–160 in R. R. Johnson, C. D. Ziebell, D. R. Patton, P. F. Ffolliott, and R. H. Hamre (tech. coords.). Riparian ecosystems and their management: Reconciling conflicting uses. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-120. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  67. Johnson, R. R., P. S. Bennett, and L. T. Haight. 1988. Southwestern woody riparian vegetation and succession: An evolutionary approach. Pages 135–139 in D. L. Abell (tech. coord.) Proceedings of the California riparian systems conference: Protection, management and restoration for the 1990’s. US Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-110. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  68. Konkle, R. C. 1996. Small mammal and herpetofaunal use of a tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis)-dominated riparian community in southeastern New Mexico. Master of Science thesis, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New MexicoGoogle Scholar
  69. Kunzmann, M. R., A. Rybak, and P. S. Bennett. 2000. Yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis) habitat identification using GPS and GIS based survey information. Available at http://gis.esri.com/library/userconf/proc00/professional/papers/PAP429/p429.htm
  70. Lang, A. R. G., McNaughton, K. G., Fazu, C., Bradley, E. F., Ohtaki, E. 1983Inequality of eddy transfer coefficients for vertical transport of sensible and latent heats during advective inversionsBoundary-Layer Meteorology252541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Laurenzi, A. W., Anderson, B. W., Ohmart, R. D. 1982Wintering biology of Ruby-crowned Kinglets in the lower Colorado River ValleyCondor84385398Google Scholar
  72. Laymon, S. A., Halterman, M. D. 1987Can the western subspecies of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo be saved from extinction?Western Birds181925Google Scholar
  73. Lewis, P. A., DeLoach, C. J., Herr, J. C., Dudley, T. L., Carruthers, R. I. 2003aAssessment of risk to native Frankenia shrubs from an Asian leaf beetle, Diorhabdaelongata deserticola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), introduced for biological control of saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) in the western United StatesBiological Control27148166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lewis, P. A., DeLoach, C. J., Knutson, A. E., Tracy, J. L. 2003bBiology of Diorhabda elongata deserticola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an Asian leaf beetle for biological control of saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) in the western United StatesBiological Control27117147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Liesner, D. R. 1971. Phytophagous insects of Tamarix spp. in New Mexico. Master of Science thesis, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New MexicoGoogle Scholar
  76. Lite S. J. and J. C. Stromberg. Ground-water and surface water thresholds for maintaining PopulusSalix forests, San Pedro River, Arizona. Biological Conservation (in press)Google Scholar
  77. Lovich, J. C., DeGouvenain, R. C. 1998

    Saltcedar invasion in desert wetlands of the southwestern United States: Ecological and political implications

    Majumder, S. K.Miller, E. W.Brenner, S. J. eds. Ecology of wetlands and associated systemsPennsylvania Academy of ScienceEaston, Pennsylvania447467
    Google Scholar
  78. Luken, J. O. 1997

    Management of plant invasions: implicating ecological succession

    Luken, J. O.Theiret, J. W. eds. Assessment and management of plant invasionsSpringer-VerlagNew York133144
    Google Scholar
  79. Mack, R. N., Simberloff, D., Lonsdale, W. M., Evans, H., Clout, M., Bazzaz, F. A. 2000Biotic invasions: Causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and controlEcological Applications10689710Google Scholar
  80. Malanson, G. P. 1995Riparian landscapesCambridge University PressCambridgeGoogle Scholar
  81. Maron, J. L., Vila, M. 2001When do herbivores affect plant invasion? Evidence for the natural enemies and biotic resistance hypothesesOikos95361373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Massman, W. 2000A simple method for estimating frequency response corrections for eddy covariance systemsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology104185198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Massman, W. 2001Reply to comment by Rannik on “A simple method for estimating frequency response corrections for eddy covariance systems”Agricultural and Forest Meteorology107247251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. McAneney, K. J., Brunet, Y., Itier, B. 1994Downwind evolution of transpiration by two irrigated crops under conditions of local advectionJournal of Hydrology161375388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McDaniel, K. C., Taylor, J. P. 2003aSaltcedar recovery after herbicide-burn and mechanical clearing practicesJournal of Range Management56439445Google Scholar
  86. McDaniel, K. C. and J. P. Taylor. 2003b. Aerial spraying and mechanical saltcedar control. Pages 113–119 in C. Hart (ed.) Proceedings of the Saltcedar and Water Resources in the West Symposium, July 16–17, 2003, San Angelo, TexasGoogle Scholar
  87. McEvoy, P. B. 1996Host specificity and biological pest controlBioScience46401405Google Scholar
  88. McGrath, L. J., and C. van Riper III. 2004. Flower power: The influence of flowering mesquite trees on migrating warblers along the Lower Colorado River. US Geological Survey Open-File Report SBSC/SDRS/No. 2004-1002Google Scholar
  89. Miner, K. L. 1989. Foraging ecology of the Least Bell’s Vireo, Vireo bellii pusillus. Master of Science thesis, San Diego State University, San Diego, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  90. Miyamoto, S., Glenn, E. P., Olsen, M. W. 1996Growth, water use and salt uptake of four halophytes irrigated with highly saline waterJournal of Arid Environments32141159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nagler, P., Glenn, E., Thompson, T. 2003Comparison of transpiration rates among saltcedar, cottonwood and willow trees by sap flow and canopy temperature methodsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology1167389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nelson, S.M., Andersen, D.C. 1999Butterfly (Papilionidea and Hesperioidea) assemblages associated with natural, exotic, and restored riparian habitats along the lower Colorado River, USARegulated Rivers: Research and Management15485504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Paw, U, K., Baldocchi, D., Meyers, T., Wilson, K. 2000Correction of eddy-covariance measurements incorporating both advective effects and density fluxesBoundary-Layer Meteorology97487511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pimentel, D., McNair, S., Janecka, J., Wightman, J., Simmonds, C., O’Connell, C., Wong, E., Russel, L., Zern, J., Aquino, T., Tsomondo, T. 2001Economic and environmental threats of alien plant, animal, and microbe invasionsAgriculture, Ecosystems and Environment84120Google Scholar
  95. Pockman, W. T., Sperry, J. S. 2000Vulnerability to xylem cavitation and the distribution of Sonoran desert vegetationAmerican Journal of Botany8712871299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Poff, N. L., Allan, J. D., Bain, M.B., Karr, J. R., Prestegaard, K. L., Richter, B.D., Sparks, R. E., Stromberg, J.C. 1997The natural flow regimeBioScience47769784Google Scholar
  97. Richardson, D. M., Pysek, P., Rejmanek, M., Barbour, M.G., Panetta, F.D., West, C.J. 2000Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitionsDiversity and Distributions693107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Richter, B. D., Mathews, R., Harrison, D. L., Wigington, R. 2003Ecologically sustainable water management: Managing river flows for ecological integrityEcological Applications13206224Google Scholar
  99. Richter, B. S., Stutz, J. C. 2002Mycorrhizal inoculation of big sacaton: Implications for grassland restoration of abandoned agricultural fieldsRestoration Ecology10607616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Robinson, T. W. :1965. Introduction, spread and areal extent of saltcedar (Tamarix) in the western states. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 491-A, 12 ppGoogle Scholar
  101. Roelle, J. E., Gladwin, D. N. 1999Establishment of woody riparian species from natural seedfall at a former gravel pitRestoration Ecology7183192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rood, S. B., Gourley, C. R., Ammon, E. M., Heki, L. G., Klotz, J. R., Morrison, M. L., Mosley, D., Scoppettone, G. G., Swanson, S., Wagner, P. L. 2003Flows for floodplain forests: A successful riparian restorationBioScience53647656Google Scholar
  103. Rosenberg, K. V., Ohmart, R. D., Hunter, W. C., Anderson, B. W. 1991Birds of the lower Colorado River valleyUniversity of Arizona PressTucson, ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  104. Rosenberry, D. O., Winter, T. C. 1997Dynamics of water-table fluctuations in an upland between two prairie-pothole wetlands in North DakotaJournal of Hydrology191266289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sala, A., Devitt, D. A., Smith, S. D. 1996Water use by Tamarix ramosissima and associated phreatophytes in a Mojave Desert floodplainEcological Applications6888898Google Scholar
  106. Schaeffer, S., Williams, D., Goodrich, D. 2000Transpiration of cottonwood/willow forest estimated from sap fluxAgricultural and Forest Meteorology105257270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Scott, R. L., Shuttleworth, W. J., Goodrich, D.C., Maddock III, T. 2000The water use of two dominant vegetation communities in a semiarid riparian ecosystemAgricultural and Forest Meteorology105241256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Scott, R. L., Edwards, E. A., Shuttleworth, W. J., Huxman, T.E., Watts, C., Goodrich, D.C. 2004Interannual and seasonal variation in fluxes of water and carbon dioxide from a riparian woodland ecosystemAgricultural and Forest Meteorology1226584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Shafroth, P. B., Auble, G. T., Stromberg, J. C., Patten, D. T. 1998Establishment of woody riparian vegetation in relation to annual patterns of streamflow, Bill Williams River, ArizonaWetlands18577590Google Scholar
  110. Shafroth, P. B., Stromberg, J. C., Patten, D. T. 2000Responses of riparian vegetation to different alluvial ground water regimesWestern North American Naturalist606676Google Scholar
  111. Shafroth, P. B., Stromberg, J. C., Patten, D. T. 2002Riparian vegetation response to altered disturbance and stress regimesEcological Applications12107123Google Scholar
  112. Shaner, D. L.O’Conner, S. L. eds. 1991The imidazolinone herbicidesCRC PressBoca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  113. Sher, A. A., Marshall, D. L. 2003Competition between native and exotic floodplain tree species across water regimes and soil texturesAmerican Journal of Botany90413422Google Scholar
  114. Sher, A. A., Marshall, D. L., Gilbert, S. A. 2000Competition between native Populus deltoides and invasive Tamarix ramosissima and the implications of reestablishing flooding disturbanceConservation Biology1417441754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sher, A. A., Marshall, D. L., Taylor, J. P. 2002Establishment patterns of native Populus and Salix in the presence of invasive nonnative TamarixEcological Applications12760772Google Scholar
  116. Sink, M. 2004. Thirsty shrub is a target as the West fights drought. The New York Times, May 15, 2004Google Scholar
  117. Sogge M. K., B. E. Kus, S. J. S ferra and M. J.Whitfield. 2003 Ecology and conservation of the Willow Flycatcher. Studies in Avian Biology No. 26 Cooper Ornithologcal Society. Google Scholar
  118. Sprenger, M. D., Smith, L. M., Taylor, J. P. 2002Restoration of riparian habitat using experimental floodingWetlands224957Google Scholar
  119. Spronken-Smith, R. A., Oke, T. R., Lowry, W. P. 2000Advection and the surface energy balance across an irrigated urban parkInternational Journal of Climatology2010331047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stevens, L. E. 1985. Invertebrate herbivore community dynamics on Tamarix chinensis Loueiro and Salix exigua Nuttal in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Master of Science thesis, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  121. Stromberg, J. C. 2001Restoration of riparian vegetation in the south-western United States: Importance of flow regimes and fluvial dynamismJournal of Arid Environments491734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Stromberg, J. C., Chew, M. K. 2002

    Foreign visitors in riparian corridors of the American Southwest: Is xenophytophobia justified?

    Tellman, B. eds. Invasive exotic species in the Sonoran regionThe University of Arizona PressTucson, Arizona195219
    Google Scholar
  123. Suding, K. N., Gross, K. L., Houseman, G.R. 2004Alternative states and positive feedbacks in restoration ecologyTrends in Ecology and Evolution194653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Swenson, E. A., and C. L. Mullins. 1985. Revegetating riparian trees in southwestern floodplains. Pages 135–138 in R. R. Johnson, C. D. Ziebell, D. R. Patton, P. F. Ffolliott, and R. H. Hamre (tech. coords.). Riparian ecosystems and their management: Reconciling conflicting uses. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-120. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  125. Szaro, R. C., Belfit, S. C. 1986Herpetofaunal use of a desert riparian island and its adjacent scrub habitatJournal of Wildlife Management50752761Google Scholar
  126. Taylor, J. P., McDaniel, K. C. 1998Restoration of salt-cedar (Tamarix spp.)-infested floodplains on the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife RefugeWeed Technology12345352Google Scholar
  127. Taylor J. P., and K. C. McDaniel. 2005 Revegetation strategies after saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) control in headwater, transitional, and depositional watershed areas. Weed Technology (in press)Google Scholar
  128. Taylor, J. P., Wester, D. B., Smith, L. M. 1999Soil disturbance, flood management, and riparian woody plant establishment in the Rio Grande floodplainWetlands19372382Google Scholar
  129. Twine, T. E., Kustas, W. P., Norman, J. M., Cook, D. R., Houser, P. R., Meyers, T. P., Prueger, J. H., Starks, P. J., Wesely, M. L. 2000Correcting eddy-covariance flux underestimates over a grasslandAgricultural and Forest Meteorology1032793000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. USFWS (US Fish and Wildlife Service). 2002. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 2, Albuquerque, NMGoogle Scholar
  131. van Hylckama, T. E. A. 1974. Water use by saltcedar as measured by the water budget method. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 491–E, 30 ppGoogle Scholar
  132. van Riper, C., III, K. L. Ecton, C. O’Brien, and L. J. Mc Grath. 2004. Avian response to tamarisk invasion on the Lower Colorado River: A threshold hypothesis. US Geological Survey Open-File Report SBSC/SDRS/No. 2004–1003Google Scholar
  133. Verma, S. B., Rosenberg, N. J., Blad, B. L. 1978Turbulent exchange coefficients for sensible heat and water vapor under advective conditionsJournal of Applied Meteorology17330338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Waller G. D., and R. Schmalzel. 1976. Beekeeping in Arizona. Gleanings in bee culture. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Bee Research Lab, Beltsville, MDGoogle Scholar
  135. Webb, E., Pearman, G., Leuning, R. 1980Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water-vapor transferQuarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society10685100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. WSSA (Weed Science Society of America)1994Herbicide handbookWeed Society of AmericaChampaign, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  137. Weeks, E. P., H. L. Weaver, G. S. Campbell, and B. D. Tanner. 1987, Water use by saltcedar and by replacement vegetation in the Pecos River floodplain between Acme and Artesia, New Mexico. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 491-G, 33 pGoogle Scholar
  138. Welder, G. E. 1988. Hydrologic effects of phreatophyte control, Acme–Artesia reach of the Pecos River, New Mexico, 1967–82. US Geological Survey Water-Resource Investigations Report 87-4148, 46 ppGoogle Scholar
  139. Wesely, M. L. 1970. Eddy correlation measurements in the atmospheric surface layer over agricultural crops. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  140. Yard, H. K., van Riper III, C., Brown, B. T., Kearsley, M. J. 2004Diets of insectivorous birds along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, ArizonaCondor106106115Google Scholar
  141. Yong, W., Finch, D. M. 1997Population trends of migratory landbirds along the middle Rio GrandeSouthwestern Naturalist42132147Google Scholar
  142. Zavaleta, E. 2000The economic value of controlling an invasive shrubAmbio29462467Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick B. Shafroth
    • 1
  • James R. Cleverly
    • 2
  • Tom L. Dudley
    • 3
  • John P. Taylor
    • 4
  • Charles VAN RiperIII
    • 5
  • Edwin P. Weeks
    • 6
  • James N. Stuart
    • 7
  1. 1.Fort Collins Science CenterUS Geological SurveyFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  3. 3.Department of Natural Resource and Environmental ScienceUniversity of NevadaRenoUSA
  4. 4.Bosque del Apache National Wildlife RefugeUS Fish and Wildlife ServiceSocorroUSA
  5. 5.Southwest Biological Science CenterUS Geological SurveyTucsonUSA
  6. 6.National Research ProgramUS Geological SurveyDenverUSA
  7. 7.Conservation Services Division New Mexico Department of Game and FishJames N. StuartSanta FeUSA

Personalised recommendations