Malignant Tumors Associated with Nevus Sebaceous: Therapeutic Consequences
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Nevus sebaceous has been considered a relatively infrequent and unimportant congenital hamartoma for plastic surgeons unless the lesions are so big that they require a demanding defect closure. As the dignity of such tumors is primarily benign and the malformed sebaceous glands are localized abnormally high in the dermis, the temptation is appealing not to excise these tumors any more but to eradicate them by laser beam therapy. Yet a nevus sebaceous not only affects sebaceous glands but includes various other malformations of the affected skin and its appendages. In addition, different malignant tumors may occur in nevus sebaceous, even in children and young adults. We encountered 4 such malignant tumors of 18 nevi sebaceous operated on from 1989 to 1997. All nevi had been unsuspicious macroscopically. In three patients, one of them only 15 years old, an associated basal cell carcinoma was found. In the fourth patient there was a mixture of three additional tumors, a cystadenoma, a keratoacanthoma, and a basal cell carcinoma, besides the sebaceous malformations. These findings have two consequences: first, to continue surgical treatment of nevus sebaceous instead of dermabrasion or dermablation and to have the specimen examined histologically and, second, to excise such tumors as early in childhood as possible.
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