Skip to main content
Log in

The Promise and Pitfalls of AI-Generated Anatomical Images: Evaluating Midjourney for Aesthetic Surgery Applications

  • Original Articles
  • Special Topic
  • Published:
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Backgrounds

The rapid advancement of generative artificial intelligence (AI) systems, such as Midjourney, has paved the way for their use in medical training, producing computer-generated images. However, despite clear disclosures stating that these images are not intended for medical consultations, their accuracy and realism are yet to be thoroughly examined.

Methods

A series of requests were addressed to the Midjourney AI tool, a renowned generative artificial intelligence application, with a focus on depicting appropriate systemic anatomy and representing aesthetic surgery operations. Subsequently, a blinded panel of four experts, with years of experience in anatomy and aesthetic surgery, assessed the images based on three parameters: accuracy, anatomical correctness, and visual impact. Each parameter was scored on a scale of 1–5.

Results

All of images produced by Midjourney exhibited significant inaccuracies and lacked correct anatomical representation. While they displayed high visual impact, their unsuitability for medical training and scientific publications became evident.

Conclusions

The implications of these findings are multifaceted. Primarily, the images’ inaccuracies render them ineffective for training, leading to potential misconceptions. Additionally, their lack of anatomical correctness limits their applicability in scientific articles. Although the study focuses on a single AI tool, it underscores the need for collaboration between AI developers and medical professionals. The potential integration of accurate medical databases could refine the precision of such AI tools in the future.

Level of Evidence III

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Haug CJ, Drazen JM (2023) Artificial intelligence and machine learning in clinical medicine. N Engl J Med 388(13):1201–1208. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra2302038

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Midjourney (2023) Terms of service. https://docs.midjourney.com/docs/terms-of-service. Accessed 10 Sep 2023

  3. Netter FH (2014) Atlas of human anatomy, 4th edn. Saunders/Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA

    Google Scholar 

  4. Worley B, Verma L, Macdonald J (2018) Aesthetic dermatologic surgery training in canadian residency programs. J Cutan Med Surg 23(2):164–173. https://doi.org/10.1177/1203475418814228

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Locketz G, Silberthau K, Lozada K, Becker D (2020) Patient-specific 3d-printed rhinoplasty operative guides. Am J Cosmet Surg 37(3):143–147. https://doi.org/10.1177/0748806819901224

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Gurok M, Kilic F, Saglam S, Gurok N, Kuloglu M, Yildirim A (2019) Patients without psychopathology applying for aesthetic rhinoplasty may display elevated harm avoidance and reduced self-directedness: a cross-sectional, case–control study. Psychiatry Clin Psychopharmacol 29(4):715–721. https://doi.org/10.1080/24750573.2019.1605666

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This article received no funding.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Giovanni Buzzaccarini.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

FV is opinion leader for Sinclair Pharma. All the authors report no conflict of interest in this article production.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

For this type of study, informed consent is not required

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Buzzaccarini, G., Degliuomini, R.S., Borin, M. et al. The Promise and Pitfalls of AI-Generated Anatomical Images: Evaluating Midjourney for Aesthetic Surgery Applications. Aesth Plast Surg 48, 1874–1883 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00266-023-03826-w

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00266-023-03826-w

Keywords

Navigation