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Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Standardized Cosmesis and Health Nasal Outcomes Survey (SCHNOS) in Italian

Abstract

Backgrounds

Rhinoplasty necessarily concerns functional and cosmetic aspects, and outcomes of both should be assessed in each patient. There has been a lack in the literature in Italian for a comprehensive tool for assessing both aspects of rhinoplasty. The objective is to translate and validate the Standardized Cosmesis and Health Nasal Outcomes Survey (SCHNOS) into Italian.

Methods

Forward and back-translation was used. Content validity was evaluated by experts and by patient interviews. Internal consistency was assessed by a Cronbach’s alpha. The structure validity was assessed by an exploratory factor analysis.

Results

Cognitive interviews of 10 rhinoplasty patients resulted in a good overall comprehension of the SCHNOS. Of the 411 respondents, 281 (32%) were women, and the average age was 33.6 (11.3) years. The alpha was excellent for both the obstruction domain (SCHNOS-O) (0.90) and the cosmetic domain (SCHNOS-C) (0.94). All the correlations between repeated measures were moderate to very strong. The exploratory factor analysis demonstrated unidimensionality of both the SCHNOS-O and the SCHNOS-C scores.

Conclusions

The SCHNOS was successfully translated and validated in Italian and can be recommended for a clinical use among rhinoplasty patients.

Level of Evidence III

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Correspondence to Rosa Alessia Battista.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The present study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board (Protocol number: Rhinoplasty2020; decision number: 38/INT/2020).

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All procedures performed in the study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Informed consent was obtained from all participants.

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Battista, R.A., Ferraro, M., Piccioni, L.O. et al. Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Standardized Cosmesis and Health Nasal Outcomes Survey (SCHNOS) in Italian. Aesth Plast Surg (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00266-021-02677-7

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Keywords

  • Rhinoplasty
  • Patient-reported outcome measures
  • Validity
  • Reliability
  • Psychometrics
  • Italian