Gynecomastia: Ultrasound-Confirmed Classification Pertainent to Surgical Correction



Gynecomastia is the most common form of breast alteration in men, due to proliferation of the gland ducts and stromal components, including fat. In addition to the most obvious indications (weight loss, pharmacotherapy, and drugs suspension), the surgical treatment is needed for long-standing gynecomastia, combining liposuction, adenectomy, partial mammary adenectomy, periareolar skin resection, and round-block suture.

Materials and Methods

A retrospective study was conducted on 148 patients undergoing gynecomastia correction from May 2012 to April 2018. Follow-up ranged from 9 to 14 months. The authors propose a new ultrasound-confirmed classification system, dividing patients into six categories. The authors analyzed immediate complications, revision, recurrence, and minor aesthetic problems (retracted/depressed areas) and introduced a way to correct the irregularities with fat grafting and needles.


The total complication rate was 11.5% (17/148). Most of the complications (11) were observed in patients who underwent glandular resection and 3 after liposuction only. Retrospective surveys about patients’ and surgeons’ satisfaction were performed, showing excellent feedbacks regarding the results accomplished.


The simple classification helps surgeons choose the most suitable approach, avoiding insufficient or invasive treatments and undesirable scars. Moreover, the analysis of the type of sequelae and their correction allow high patients’ satisfaction.

Level of evidence IV

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No financial support or benefits have been received by any author. We do not have any relationship with any commercial source related directly or indirectly to this scientific paper.

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Correspondence to Marco Klinger.

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Approval was obtained from the ethics committee of Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital and MultiMedica Holding Spa. The procedures used in this study adhere to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.

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Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Klinger, M., Bandi, V., Giannasi, S. et al. Gynecomastia: Ultrasound-Confirmed Classification Pertainent to Surgical Correction. Aesth Plast Surg (2021).

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  • Breast
  • Gynecomastia
  • Tuberous breast
  • Surgery
  • Sequelae
  • Fat grafting