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Umbilical Reconstruction Techniques: A Literature Review

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  • Body Contouring
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Abstract

Background

There are many instances in which sacrificing the umbilicus is unavoidable. Umbilical reconstruction (umbiliconeoplasty) is an important surgical procedure to complete the abdomen’s reconstruction and to give again a pleasant cosmetic appearance.

Objectives

To provide a complete overview of all surgical techniques for umbiliconeoplasty described in the literature.

Methods

PubMed database was queried using ‘umbilical and reconstruction’, ‘umbilicus and reconstruction’, ‘navel and reconstruction’, ‘umbiliconeoplasty’, ‘neo-omphaloplasty’ or ‘umbilicaneoplasty’ to select the papers dealing with the reconstruction of the umbilicus.

Results

Sixty different techniques for the reconstruction of the missing umbilicus were described in 77 papers. Local skin flaps and the purse-string suture technique were the most frequently described techniques. The Three flaps technique, the Four flaps technique and the 2 Lateral rectangular pedicle lateral flaps technique were the most popular local flap techniques. Indications ranged from congenital pediatric defects to reconstruction during abdominoplasty.

Conclusions

Several surgical techniques were described for umbilicus reconstruction. While there is not a universal algorithm for the choice of the technique, the surgeon may decide which technique to use based on other surgeons’ experiences reports.

Level of Evidence III

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

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Sisti, A., Huayllani, M.T., Boczar, D. et al. Umbilical Reconstruction Techniques: A Literature Review. Aesth Plast Surg 45, 1078–1096 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00266-020-01989-4

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