Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 43–50 | Cite as

Concepts in Navel Aesthetic: A Comprehensive Surface Anatomy Analysis

  • Giuseppe ViscontiEmail author
  • Emiliano Visconti
  • Lorenzo Bonomo
  • Marzia Salgarello
Original Article Aesthetic



The navel contributes to abdominal surface identity and beauty. In Western societies, the display of the navel in women’s fashion has grown and, nowadays, women are much more concerned about its shape and position. Despite this, few studies are available on navel surface anatomy and there is no standardization regarding its proper placement in cosmetic abdominoplasty.

Materials and Methods

In this observational study, we analyzed navel shape and position on 81 high quality pictures, having been chosen as top 2013 bikini models by editors of mass media. An on-line survey on navel shape and position has been made via, involving 1,682 people.


The analysis revealed that navel position is quite variable based on the proportions analyzed with an acceptable narrow data spread of the xiphoid–umbilicus:umbilicus-abdominal mean crease ratio of 1.62 ± 0.16. The data dispersion for the other three ratios was wider, making them less reliable as references. The most appreciated navel shape was the vertical oval with superior hooding (82 %), and the less appreciated ones were the horizontal oval (29 %) and the protruding shape (47 %). When comparing navel position on the same body, the majority of participants choose the one with the navel relocated according to the golden ratio (i.e., 1.618)


The most attractive navel position is located at the xiphoid–umbilicus:umbilicus-abdominal crease golden ratio. Bony landmarks seem to be not reliable as references for proper navel positioning. The use of the Fibonacci (golden mean) caliper intraoperatively might aid in proper positioning of the navel in abdominoplasty.

No Level Assigned

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors


Umbilicus Omphaloplasty Abdominoplasty Lipoabdominoplasty Umbilicoplasty Divine proportion Golden ratio 


Conflict of interest

None of the authors has a financial interest in any of the products, devices, or drugs mentioned in this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Visconti
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Emiliano Visconti
    • 2
  • Lorenzo Bonomo
    • 2
  • Marzia Salgarello
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryUniversità Cattolica del “Sacro Cuore” – University Hospital “A. Gemelli”RomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Bioimages and Radiological SciencesUniversità Cattolica del “Sacro Cuore” – University Hospital “A. Gemelli”RomeItaly
  3. 3.RomeItaly

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