Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 456–462 | Cite as

Long-Term Results of a Versatile Technique for Umbilicoplasty in Abdominoplasty

  • Marco Mazzocchi
  • Emilio Trignano
  • Andrea F. Armenti
  • Andrea Figus
  • Luca A. DessyEmail author
Original Article



Umbilical repositioning is a main step in performing abdominoplasty. The surgical aims are minimal visible scars and a natural-appearing result. Reported techniques do not completely satisfy the aesthetic targets for all types of patients. A previous study reported a versatile technique for umbilicoplasty based on an elliptical vertical incision of the umbilical skin and a double opposing “Y” incision on the abdominal flap to create a new umbilicus. This report describes the long-term results with this technique.


A total of 111 abdominoplasties were performed. Patient satisfaction and postoperative results were evaluated over a 5-year follow-up period. A modified 5-ml syringe was used to assess the depth and volume of the umbilical stalk. Depth value variations were statistically compared using the Wilcoxon test.


For all the patients, a three-dimensional umbilicus with an adequate depression was created. In four cases, deepithelialization of the umbilical skin occurred. After 1 postoperative year, no significant changes in umbilical shape, dimension, depth, or appearance were observed. After 5 years, no significant changes in shape or appearance were observed. The cicatricial umbilical stenosis occurrence was 4.5%. A small significant decrease in umbilical depth was noted. Overall, the results remained satisfying at this writing.


The reported technique is easy to learn, simple to perform, and stable over time. It gives a natural depth appearance, ensures optimal position, pulls scars deeply, and allows achievement of different shapes according to the patient’s habitus.


Abdominoplasty Umbilicoplasty Umbilicus reconstruction 


Conflict of interest



  1. 1.
    Akbaş H, Güneren E, Eroğlu L, Uysal OA (2003) Natural-looking umbilicus as an important part of abdominoplasty. Aesthetic Plast Surg 27:139–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Avelar JM (1983) Abdominoplasty: technical refinement and analysis of 130 cases in 8 years’ follow-up. Aesthetic Plastic Surg 7:205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baack BR, Anson G, Nachbar JM, White DJ (1996) Umbilicoplasty: the construction of a new umbilicus and correction of umbilical stenosis without external scars. Plast Reconstr Surg 97:227–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baroudi R (1975) Umbilicoplasty. Clin Plast Surg 2:431–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bruekers SE, van der Lei B, Tan TL, Luijendijk RW, Stevens HP (2009) “Scarless” umbilicoplasty: a new umbilicoplasty technique and a review of the English language literature. Ann Plast Surg 63:15–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cannistrà C, Pecorelli E (1999) Umbilical restoration in abdominal dermolipectomy: a simple double-Y, double-M technique. Aesthetic Plast Surg 23:364–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Castillo PF (2007) Umbilical reinsertion in abdominoplasty: Technique using deepithelialized skin flaps. Aesthetic Plast Surg 31:519–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Craig SB, Faller MS, Puckett CL (2000) In search of the ideal female umbilicus. Plast Reconstr Surg 105:389–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Lacerda DJ, Martins DM, Marques A, Brenda E, De Moura Andrews J (1994) Umbilicoplasty for the abdomen with a thin adipose layer. Br J Plast Surg 47:386–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Delerm A (1982) Refinements in abdominoplasty with emphasis on reimplantation of the umbilicus. Plast Reconst Surg 70:632–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dubou R, Ousterhout DK (1978) Placement of the umbilicus in an abdominoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg 61:291–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hoffman S (1989) A simple technique for locating the umbilicus in abdominoplasty. Plast Reconst Surg 83:537–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Iida N, Ohsumi N (2003) Reconstruction of umbilical hypogenesis accompanied by a longitudinal scar. Plast Reconstr Surg 111:322–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Juri J, Juri C, Raiden G (1979) Reconstruction of the umbilicus in abdominoplasty. Plast Reconst Surg 63:580–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kurul S, Uzunismail A (1997) A simple technique to determine the future location of the umbilicus in abdominoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg 100:753–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee MJ, Mustoe TA (2002) Simplified technique for creating a youthful umbilicus in abdominoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg 109:2136–2140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lim TC, Tan WT (1996) Managing the umbilicus during abdominoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg 97:227–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Malic CC, Spyrou GE, Hough M, Fourie L (2007) Patient satisfaction with two different methods of umbilicoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg 119:357–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Markman B, Barton FE Jr (1987) Anatomy of the subcutaneous tissue of the trunk and the lower extremity. Plast Reconstr Surg 80:248–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Masshia H, Montegut W, Phillips R (1997) A method of reconstructing a natural-looking umbilicus in abdominoplasty. Ann Plast Surg 38:228–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Masuda R, Takeda A, Sugimoto T, Ishiguro M, Uchinuma E (2003) Reconstruction of the umbilicus using a reverse fan-shaped flap. Aesthetic Plast Surg 27:349–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Matsuo K, Kondoh S, Hirose T (1990) A simple technique for reconstruction of the umbilicus, using a conchal cartilage composite graft. Plast Reconstr Surg 86:149–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mazzocchi M, Dessy LA, Figus A (2008) A versatile technique for repositioning of the umbilicus in abdominoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg 121:357e–358ePubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Miller MJ, Balch CM (1993) “Iris” technique for immediate umbilical reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 92:754–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Niranjan NS, Staiano JJ (2004) An anatomical method for re-sitting the umbilicus. Plast Reconstr Surg 113:2194–2198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Otto A, Wechselberger G, Schoeller T, Lille S (1997) A method of reconstructing a natural-looking umbilicus in abdominoplasty. Ann Plast Surg 39:435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pitanguy I (1967) Abdominal lipectomy: an approach to it through an analysis of 300 consecutive cases. Plast Reconstr Surg 40:384–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Psillakis JM, Appiani E, de la Plaza R (1991) Color atlas of aesthetic surgery of the abdomen. Thieme Medical Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ramirez OM (2000) Abdominoplasty and abdominal wall rehabilitation: A comprehensive approach. Plast Reconstr Surg 105:425–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ribeiro L, Muzy S, Accorsi A (1991) Omphaloplasty. Ann Plast Surg 27:457–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rozen SM, Redett R (2007) The two-dermal-flap umbilical transposition: a natural and aesthetic umbilicus after abdominoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg 119:2255–2262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Santanelli F, Mazzocchi M, Renzi L, Cigna E (2002) Reconstruction of a natural-looking umbilicus. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 36:183–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schoeller T, Wechselberger G, Otto A, Rainer C, Schwabegger A, Lille S, Ninković M (1998) New technique for scarless umbilical reinsertion in abdominoplasty procedures. Plast Reconstr Surg 102:1720–1723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sillitoe AT, Thornton DJ, Srinivasan J, Hart NB (2005) Elevation of the umbilicus with skin hooks aids excision in abdominoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg 115:349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sugawara Y, Hirabayashi S, Asato H, Yoshimura K (1995) Reconstruction of the umbilicus using a single triangular flap. Ann Plast Surg 34:78–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Suliman MT (2009) A simple method for fishing out the umbilicus in abdominoplasty surgery. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 62:594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Teimourian B, Marefat S (1994) Body contouring with suction-assisted lipectomy. In: Cohen M (ed) Mastery of plastic and reconstructive surgery, vol 3. Little Brown, Boston, pp 2186–2200Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vernon S (1957) Umbilical transplantation upward and abdominal contouring in lipectomy. Am J Surg 96:490–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Mazzocchi
    • 1
  • Emilio Trignano
    • 2
  • Andrea F. Armenti
    • 2
  • Andrea Figus
    • 2
  • Luca A. Dessy
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery“Sapienza” University of RomeRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations