Advertisement

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 89–97 | Cite as

Harmonized Profiloplasty Using Balanced Angular Profile Analysis

  • Heung Sik ParkEmail author
  • Seung Chul Rhee
  • So Ra Kang
  • Ji Hyuck Lee
Article

Abstract

To evaluate outcomes of aesthetic facial plastic surgery objectively the authors developed a photogrammetric profile analysis method, which they call “balanced angular profile analysis” (BAPA). To develop standards and ways to determine the conformation of various soft tissue segments analytically, 19 mean angular values acquired from the photographs of 71 famous female models (53 Eastern models and 18 Western models) were standardized to provide reference data (recommended aesthetic mean angles [RAMA]), which contain some of the common features and differences between ethnic groups and races. On the basis of the data prepared from angular profile analyses of these photographs, the authors apply their developed method in a practical way to the pre- and postoperative photographs of patients. By using the data provided by BAPA, the clinician can identify delicate profile problems correctly, perform appropriate aesthetic operations, and thus produce better aesthetic results. The authors’ harmonized and balanced angular profile analysis can provide surgeons with a way of determining the conformational problems associated with various soft tissue segments of the face. It also offers aesthetic plastic surgeons reference information concerning the creation of an attractive face during the first patient consultation. The authors hope that their straightforward method of profile analysis will provide facial plastic surgeons with a simple tool for profile analysis and surgical planning designed to create an attractive face.

Keywords

Facial plastic surgery Profile analysis 

References

  1. 1.
    Auger, TA, Turley, PK 1999The female soft tissue profile as presented in fashion magazines during the 1900s: A photographic analysisInt J Adult Orthnd orthognath surg14717Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burger, HJ, Rossow., PE, Standen, I 1994Profile enhancement and cephalometric landmark identificationAm J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop105250256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bush., K, Anonyshyn, O 1996Three-dimensional facial anthropometry using a laser surface scanner: validation of the techniquePlast Reconstr Surg98226235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bütow, KW 1984A lateral photometric analysis for aesthetic–orthognathic treatmentJ Maxillofacial Surg12201207Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chasmar, LR, Henderson, PD 1979Concomitant treatment of developmental jaw deformities with rhinoplastyAnn Plast Surg36471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cho, DH, Ham, KS, Cho, YJ 1989An anthropometric analysis on the beautiful and ugly faces of the young KoreansJ Korean Soc Plast Reconstr Surg16926Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Connie, SW, Chiu, BDS, Robert, KFC 1992The facial soft tissue profile of the southern Chinese: prosthodontic considerationsJr Prosthet Dent68839Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    David TJO: Facial profile analysis. In: Automated facial metrology. Accessed June 2003 at:http://www.cs.uwa.edu.au/~davido/chapter6.pdf
  9. 9.
    Farkas LG: Anthropometry of the head and face, 2nd ed. Raven Press, New York, p 20–55, 159–179, 1994.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Farkas, LG, Kolar, JC 1987Anthropometric and art in the aesthetics of women’s faceClini Plast Surg14599615Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ferrario, VF, Sforza, C, Schmitz, JH, Santora, F 1999Three-dimensional facial morphometric assessment of soft tissue changes after orthognathic surgeryOral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod88549556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gibson, FB, Calhoun, KH 1992Chin position in profile analysis: comparison of techniques and introduction of the lower facial triangleArch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg118273276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grossbart, TA, Sarwer, DB 2003Psycholosocial issues and their relevance to the cosmetic surgery patientSemin Cutan Med Surg22136147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hautvast, J 1971Analysis of the human face by means of photogrammetric methodsAnthropol Anz3339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holdaway, RA 1983A soft tissue cephalometric analysis and its use in orthodontic treatment planning: part IAm J Orthod84127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Honrado, CP, Pearlman, SJ 2003Surgical treatment of nasolabial angle in balanced rhinonlastyArch Facial Plast Surg,5338334Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hsu, BS 1993Comparisons of the five analytic reference lines of the horizontal lip projection: their consistency and sensitivityAm J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop104355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim, CJ, Han, KS, Kim, Y, Cho, YJ 1988A facial anthropometric study on the Korean youthJ Korean Soc Plast Reconstr Surg15427Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Larrabee, WF,Jr 1987Facial analysis for rhinoplastyOtolaryngol clini North Am20653674Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lehman, JA,Jr 1987Soft tissue manifestations of aesthetic defects of the jaws: diagnosis and treatmentClini Plast Surg14767783Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lines, PA, Lines, RR, Lines, CA 1978Profilometrics and facial estheticsAm J Orthodont73648657CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Merrifield, LL 1966The profile line as an aid in critically evaluating facial estheticsAm J Orthod52804822CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Neger, M 1959A quantative method for the evaluation of the soft tissue facial profileAm J Orthod45738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Park, CG, Song, HS, Park, HS 1995Soft tissue cephalometric analysis of Koreans with lower face deformitiesJ Korean Soc Plast Reconstr Surg22486498Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Park, HS 2001Lambda-shape implant for augmentation of anterior nasal spine in Asian rhinoplasty as an ancillary procedureAesthetic Plast Surg25814CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Paul, WM, Johnson, DE, Hesse, KL, Glover, KE 1994Landmark identification error in posterior anterior cephalometricAngle Orthod64447454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Porter, JP, Olson, KL 2003Analysis of the African American female nosePlast Reconstr Surg111620626CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rerrario, VF, Sforza, C, Schmitz, JH, Miani, AM,Jr, Serrao, G 1998A three-dimensional computerized mesh diagram analysis and its application in soft tissue facial morphometryAm J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop114404413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Riedel, RA 1957An analysis of dentofacial relationshipsAm J Orthod43103119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sharp, HR, Rowe-Jones, JM 2003Assessing outcome in aesthetic rhinoplastyClin Otolarngol28430435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Veale, D, Haro, L, Lambrou, L 2003Cosmetic rhinoplasty in body dysmorphic disorderBr J Plast Surg56546551CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vuyk, HD, Watts, SJ, Vindayak, B 1999Revision rhinoplasty: review of deformities, aetiology, and treatment strategiesClin Otolaryngol25476481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wayne, FL,Jr, George, M, Sutton, D 1985Profile analysis in facial plastic surgeryArch Otolaryngol.111682687PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heung Sik Park
    • 1
    Email author
  • Seung Chul Rhee
    • 1
  • So Ra Kang
    • 1
  • Ji Hyuck Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryCosmetic Plastic Surgery Center, Dongdaemoon Hospital, Ewha Women’s University Medical CollegeJongno-KuRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations