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The mating system of Hanuman langurs: a problem in optimal foraging


Using data from 23 populations of Indian langurs (Presbytis entellus), we show that the proportion of one-male groups is a function of the males’ ability to defend groups of females, as predicted by the monopolisation model of Emlen and Oring (1977). However, we show that in addition to the number of females in the group and their reproductive synchrony, home range size is also a factor, probably because it affects a male’s willingness to search for other groups. These variables in turn are shown to be functions of environmental parameters (rainfall volume and seasonality, and mean ambient temperature) which probably act via the density of resources and refuges in habitats.

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Received: 3 March 1994 / Accepted after revision: 24 June 1996

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Srivastava, A., Dunbar, R. The mating system of Hanuman langurs: a problem in optimal foraging. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 39, 219–226 (1996).

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  • Key words Hanuman langurs
  • Group structure
  • Monopolisation of females
  • Home range
  • Resources