Under pressure: human adolescents express a pace-of-life syndrome

  • Andreas Lehmann
  • Jana A. Eccard
  • Christiane Scheffler
  • Ralf H. J. M. Kurvers
  • Melanie Dammhahn
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Pace-of-life syndromes: a framework for the adaptive integration of behaviour, physiology and life-history


The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis posits that life-history characteristics, among individual differences in behavior, and physiological traits have coevolved in response to environmental conditions. This hypothesis has generated much research interest because it provides testable predictions concerning the association between the slow-fast life-history continuum and behavioral and physiological traits. Although humans are among the most well-studied species and similar concepts exist in the human literature, the POLS hypothesis has not yet been directly applied to humans. Therefore, we aimed to (i) test predicted relationships between life history, physiology, and behavior in a human population and (ii) better integrate the POLS hypothesis with other similar concepts. Using data of a representative sample of German adolescents, we extracted maturation status for girls (menarche, n = 791) and boys (voice break, n = 486), and a set of health-related risk-taking behaviors and cardiovascular parameters. Maturation status and health-related risk behavior as well as maturation status and cardiovascular physiology covaried in boys and girls. Fast maturing boys and girls had higher blood pressure and expressed more risk-taking behavior than same-aged slow maturing boys and girls, supporting general predictions of the POLS hypothesis. Only some physiological and behavioral traits were positively correlated, suggesting that behavioral and physiological traits might mediate life-history trade-offs differently. Moreover, some aspects of POLS were sex-specific. Overall, the POLS hypothesis shares many similarities with other conceptual frameworks from the human literature and these concepts should be united more thoroughly to stimulate the study of POLS in humans and other animals.

Significance statement

The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis suggests that life history, behavioral and physiological traits have coevolved in response to environmental conditions. Here, we tested this link in a representative sample of German adolescents, using data from a large health survey (the KIGGs study) containing information on individual age and state of maturity for girls and boys, and a set of health-related risk-taking behaviors and cardiovascular parameters. We found that fast maturing girls and boys had overall higher blood pressure and expressed more risk-taking behavior than same-aged slow maturing girls and boys. Only some behavioral and physiological traits were positively correlated, suggesting that behavioral and physiological traits might mediate life-history trade-offs differently and not necessarily form a syndrome. Our results demonstrate a general link between life history, physiological and behavioral traits in humans, while simultaneously highlighting a more complex and rich set of relationships, since not all relationships followed predictions by the POLS hypothesis.


Adolescence Humans Life history Menarche Physiology Risk taking 



We thank all participants of the two workshops Towards a general theory of the pace-of-life syndrome, held in Hannover in 2015 and 2016, for inspiring discussions as well as the Volkswagen Stiftung (Az. 89905) for funding these workshops. We thank Marco Del Giudice, Denis Réale, Willem Frankenhuis and one anonymous reviewer as well as members of the Animal Ecology group at the University of Potsdam for providing constructive comments on earlier versions of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. The KiGGS survey was reviewed and approved by the responsible ethics committee at the University Hospital of the Charité of the Humboldt University in Berlin.

Supplementary material

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Animal EcologyUniversity of PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  2. 2.Center for Adaptive RationalityMax Planck Institute for Human DevelopmentBerlinGermany

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