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Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 63, Issue 10, pp 1515–1526 | Cite as

Variation along the shy–bold continuum in extremophile fishes (Poecilia mexicana, Poecilia sulphuraria)

  • Rüdiger RieschEmail author
  • Virginia Duwe
  • Nina Herrmann
  • Lisa Padur
  • Annemarie Ramm
  • Kristin Scharnweber
  • Matthias Schulte
  • Tanja Schulz-Mirbach
  • Madlen Ziege
  • Martin Plath
Original Paper

Abstract

One potential trade-off that bold individuals face is between increased predation risks and gains in resources. Individuals experiencing high predation and hungry individuals (or individuals with low body condition) are predicted to show increased boldness. We examined one behavioral trait previously reported to be associated with boldness (the time individual fish needed to emerge from shelter) in various populations of mollies (Poecilia spp.). Our study system included several southern Mexican surface streams with high piscine predation and high food availability, sulfidic surface streams with high avian predation, in which the inhabiting fish show reduced body condition, and a sulfidic cave, where predation and body condition are low. Our comparison revealed very short times to emerge from the start box in populations from non-sulfidic streams. In sulfidic habitats (whether surface or cave), it took individual Poecilia mexicana considerably longer to emerge from the start box, and the same difference was also found in an independent comparison between P. mexicana and the closely related, highly sulfide-adapted Poecilia sulphuraria. Fish reared under common garden conditions (in the absence of predators and hydrogen sulfide) showed intermediate boldness scores to the extremes observed in the field. Our data thus indicate that (a) boldness is shaped by environmental conditions/experiential effects, but is not heritable, (b) predation affects boldness in the predicted direction, but (c) low body condition leads to reduced boldness. Extremophile Poecilia spp. spend most of their time surfacing to survive under sulfidic and hypoxic conditions, which exposes them to increased levels of predations, but the fish forage on the bottom. Hence, in this system, increased boldness does not increase foraging success. We argue that energy limitation favors reducing energetically costly behaviors, and exploring novel environments may be just one of them.

Keywords

Boldness Extremophiles Hydrogen sulfide Poeciliidae Predator regimes 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank A. Böttger, N. Bunzel (both University of Potsdam), and J. Horstkotte (University of Hamburg) for their help in the field. We thank G. Rosenthal for commenting on a previous manuscript draft. G. Rosenthal and J.B. Johnson kindly provided information about boldness in Xiphophorus spp. The Mexican Government (Permiso de Pesca de Fomento No. DGOPA.06192.240608.-1562), Semarnat (No. SGPA/DGVS/04148/08 and SGPA/DGVS/04751/08), as well as the Municipal of Tacotalpa (SM/1133/208) kindly provided permits for the work at the Cueva del Azufre and the Baños del Azufre areas. Financial support came from the DFG (PL 470/1-2, to M.P.) and from NSF (#105095200).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rüdiger Riesch
    • 1
    Email author
  • Virginia Duwe
    • 2
  • Nina Herrmann
    • 2
  • Lisa Padur
    • 2
  • Annemarie Ramm
    • 2
  • Kristin Scharnweber
    • 2
  • Matthias Schulte
    • 2
  • Tanja Schulz-Mirbach
    • 3
  • Madlen Ziege
    • 2
  • Martin Plath
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of OklahomaNormanUSA
  2. 2.Unit of Animal EcologyUniversity of PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Section PalaeontologyLudwig-Maximilians-University MunichMunichGermany
  4. 4.Department of Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Ecology, Evolution and DiversityJ.W. Goethe University FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany

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