Association patterns among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) reflect sex differences in cooperation

Original Paper

Abstract

Theory predicts that frequent dyadic association should promote cooperation through kin selection or social tolerance. Here we test the hypothesis that sex differences in the strength and stability of association preferences among free-ranging chimpanzees conform to sex differences in cooperative behavior. Using long-term data from the Kanyawara chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) community (Kibale National Park, Uganda), we calculated indices of intra-sexual dyadic association over a 10-year period. We found that (1) male–male dyads had significantly stronger association indices than female–female dyads, (2) the pattern of association preferences in both sexes changed little over the entire study period, and (3) when comparing periods with different alpha males, changes in association strength were more frequent among males. These results demonstrate that both the strength and stability of association patterns are important components of social relationships. Male chimpanzees, which are characterized by frequent cooperation, had association preferences that were both strong and stable, suggesting that forming long-term bonds is an important dominance strategy. However, the fact that male association patterns were sensitive to upheaval in the male dominance hierarchy suggests that males also take advantage of a changing social climate when choosing association partners. By contrast, the overall strength of female associations was relatively weak. Female association preferences were equally stable as males’; however, this reflected a dyad’s tendency to be found in the same party rather than to associate closely within that party. Therefore, in this community, female association patterns appear to be more a consequence of individual ranging behavior rather than a correlate of cooperation.

Keywords

Association patterns Social bonds Cooperation Sex differences Alliance Chimpanzee 

References

  1. Alberts SC (1999) Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons. Proc Roy Soc London, Ser B 266:1501–1506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altmann J (1974) Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour 49:227–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Axelrod R, Hamilton WD (1981) The evolution of cooperation. Science 211:1390–1396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker KC, Smuts BB (1994) Social relationships of female chimpanzees: diversity between captive social groups. In: Wrangham RW, McGrew WC, de Waal FBM, Heltne PG (eds) Chimpanzee cultures. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 227–242Google Scholar
  5. Boesch C (1994) Cooperative hunting in wild chimpanzees. Anim Behav 48:653–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boesch C (2002) Cooperative hunting roles among Taï chimpanzees. Hum Nature-Int Bios 13:27–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bygott JD (1979) Agonistic behaviour, dominance and social structure in wild chimpanzees of the Gombe National Park. In: Hamburg DA, McCown ER (eds) The great apes. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, pp 405–427Google Scholar
  8. Cairns SJ, Schwager SJ (1987) A comparison of association indices. Anim Behav 35:1454–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clements KC, Stephens DW (1995) Testing non-kin cooperation: mutualism and the Prisoner’s Dilemma. Anim Behav 50:527–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Connor RC, Heithaus MR, Barre LM (2001) Complex social structure, alliance stability and mating access in a bottlenose dolphin ‘super-alliance’. Proc Roy Soc London, Ser B 268:263–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Villiers MS, Richardson PRK, van Jaarsveld AS (2003) Patterns of coalition formation and spatial association in a social carnivore, the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). J Zool (London) 260:377–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Waal FBM (1984) Sex differences in the formation of coalitions among chimpanzees. Ethol Sociobiol 5:239–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. de Waal FBM (1992) Coalitions as part of reciprocal relations in the Arnhem chimpanzee colony. In: Harcourt AH, de Waal FBM (eds) Coalitions and alliances in humans and other animals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 233–257Google Scholar
  14. de Waal FBM, Harcourt AH (1992) Coalitions and alliances: a history of ethological research. In: Harcourt AH, de Waal FBM (eds) Coalitions and alliances in humans and other animals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  15. Duffy KG (2006) Social dynamics of male chimpanzees: adaptive significance of male bonds. PhD thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CAGoogle Scholar
  16. Duffy KG, Silk JB, Wrangham RW (2007) Male chimpanzees exchange political support for mating opportunities. Curr Biol 17:R586–R587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Emery Thompson M, Kahlenberg SM, Gilby IC, Wrangham RW (2007) Core area quality is associated with variance in reproductive success among female chimpanzees at Kibale National Park. Anim Behav 73:501–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gilby IC (2006) Meat sharing among the Gombe chimpanzees: harassment and reciprocal exchange. Anim Behav 71:953–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gilby IC, Eberly LE, Pintea L, Pusey AE (2006) Ecological and social influences on the hunting behaviour of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Anim Behav 72:169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gilby IC, Eberly LE, Wrangham RW (2008) Economic profitability of social predation among wild chimpanzees: individual variation promotes cooperation. Anim Behav 75:351–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goodall J (1986) The chimpanzees of Gombe: patterns of behavior. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  22. Hamilton WD (1964) The genetical evolution of social behavior. J Theor Biol 7:1–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hare B, Melis AP, Woods V, Hastings S, Wrangham RW (2007) Tolerance allows bonobos to outperform chimpanzees on a cooperative task. Curr Biol 17:619–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hemelrijk CK (1990) Models of, and tests for, reciprocity, unidirectionality and other social interaction patterns at a group level. Anim Behav 39:1013–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kahlenberg SM, Emery Thompson M, Wrangham RW (2008) Female competition over core areas among Kanyawara chimpanzees, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Int J Primatol. In pressGoogle Scholar
  26. Kapsalis E (2003) Matrilineal kinship and primate behavior. In: Chapais B, Berman C (eds) Kinship and behavior in primates. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 153–176Google Scholar
  27. Langergraber KE, Mitani JC, Vigilant L (2007) The limited impact of kinship on cooperation in wild chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:7786–7790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lehmann J, Boesch C (2007) Sexual differences in chimpanzee sociality. Int J Primatol 29:65–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mantel N (1967) The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Res 27:209–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Melis AP, Hare B, Tomasello M (2006) Engineering cooperation in chimpanzees: tolerance constraints on cooperation. Anim Behav 72:275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mesterton-Gibbons M, Dugatkin LA (1992) Cooperation among unrelated individuals: evolutionary factors. Q Rev Biol 67:267–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mitani JC (2005) Reciprocal exchange in chimpanzees and other primates. In: Kappeler PM, van Schaik CP (eds) Cooperation in primates: mechanisms and evolution. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 101–113Google Scholar
  33. Mitani JC, Merriwether DA, Zhang C (2000) Male affiliation, cooperation and kinship in wild chimpanzees. Anim Behav 59:885–893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mitani JC, Watts DP (2001) Why do chimpanzees hunt and share meat. Anim Behav 61:915–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mitani JC, Watts DP, Pepper JW, Merriwether DA (2002) Demographic and social constraints on male chimpanzee behaviour. Anim Behav 64:727–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Muller MN, Mitani JC (2005) Conflict and cooperation in wild chimpanzees. Adv Stud Behav 35:275–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Murray CM, Mane SV, Pusey AE (2007) Dominance rank influences female space use in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes: towards an ideal despotic distribution. Anim Behav 74:1795–1804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Newton-Fisher NE (1999) Association by male chimpanzees: a social tactic. Behaviour 136:705–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Newton-Fisher NE (2002) Relationships of male chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. In: Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant L (eds) Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 112–124Google Scholar
  40. Nishida T (1968) The social group of wild chimpanzees in the Mahali mountains. Primates 9:167–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nishida T (1983) Alpha status and agonistic alliance in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Primates 24:318–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nishida T, Hosaka K (1996) Coalition strategies among adult male chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. In: McGrew WC, Marchant L, Nishida T (eds) Great ape societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 114–134Google Scholar
  43. Pepper JW, Mitani JC, Watts DP (1999) General gregariousness and specific social preferences among wild chimpanzees. Int J Primatol 20:613–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pusey AE, Williams JM, Goodall J (1997) The influence of dominance rank on the reproductive success of female chimpanzees. Science 277:828–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Riss D, Goodall J (1977) The recent rise to the alpha-rank in a population of free-living chimpanzees. Folia Primatol 27:134–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Silk JB, Alberts SC, Altmann J (2006a) Social relationships among adult female baboons (Papio cynocephalus) II. Variation in the quality and stability of social bonds. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 61:197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Silk JB, Altmann J, Alberts SC (2006b) Social relationships among adult female baboons (Papio cynocephalus) I. Variation in the strength of social bonds. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 61:183–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stanford CB (1998) Chimpanzee and red colobus. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  49. Swofford DL (2003) PAUP*: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods), 4th edn. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  50. Townsend SW, Slocombe KE, Emery Thompson M, Zuberbühler K (2007) Female-led infanticide in wild chimpanzees. Curr Biol 17:R355–R356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Trivers RL (1971) The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Q Rev Biol 46:35–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vigilant L, Hofreiter M, Siedel H, Boesch C (2001) Paternity and relatedness in wild chimpanzee communities. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:12890–12895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Watts DP (1998) Coalitionary mate guarding by male chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 44:43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Watts DP (2002) Reciprocity and interchange in the social relationships of wild male chimpanzees. Behaviour 139:343–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Watts DP, Mitani JC (2001) Boundary patrols and intergroup encounters in wild chimpanzees. Behaviour 138:299–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Watts DP, Muller MN, Amsler SJ, Mbabazi G, Mitani JC (2006) Lethal intergroup aggression by chimpanzees in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Am J Primatol 68:161–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Williams JM (2000) Female strategies and the reasons for territoriality in chimpanzees: lessons from three decades of research at Gombe. PhD thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MNGoogle Scholar
  58. Williams JM, Pusey AE, Carlis JV, Farm BP, Goodall J (2002a) Female competition and male territorial behaviour influence female chimpanzees’ ranging patterns. Anim Behav 63:347–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Williams JM, Liu H-Y, Pusey AE (2002b) Costs and benefits of grouping for female chimpanzees at Gombe. In: Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant L (eds) Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 192–203Google Scholar
  60. Wilson ML (2001) Imbalances of power: how chimpanzees respond to the threat of intergroup aggression. PhD thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  61. Wilson ML, Wrangham RW (2003) Intergroup relations in chimpanzees. Ann Rev Anthropol 32:363–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wilson ML, Hauser MD, Wrangham RW (2001) Does participation in intergroup conflict depend on numerical assessment, range location or rank for wild chimpanzees. Anim Behav 61:1203–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wilson ML, Wallauer WR, Pusey AE (2004) New cases of intergroup violence among chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Int J Primatol 25:523–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wrangham RW (2000) Why are male chimpanzees more gregarious than mothers? A scramble competition hypothesis. In: Kappeler PM (ed) Primate males: causes and consequences of variation in group composition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 248–258Google Scholar
  65. Wrangham RW, Smuts B (1980) Sex differences in the behavioral ecology of chimpanzees in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania. J Reprod Fertil, Supplement 28:13–31Google Scholar
  66. Wrangham RW, Clark AP, Isabirye-Basuta G (1992) Female social relationships and social organization of Kibale forest chimpanzees. In: Nishida T, McGrew WC, Marler P, Pickford M, de Waal FBM (eds) Topics in primatology. Vol. 1. Human origins. Tokyo University Press, Tokyo, pp 81–98Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations