Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 60, Issue 4, pp 482–491 | Cite as

Does colour matter? The importance of colour in avoidance learning, memorability and generalisation

  • A. D. Ham
  • E. Ihalainen
  • L. LindströmEmail author
  • J. Mappes
Original Article


Aposematic species exploit the ability of predators to associate, for example, conspicuous colouration with the unprofitability of prey. We tested the importance of colour for avoidance learning, memory and generalisation in wild-caught great tits (Parus major). First, we determined the birds’ initial colour preferences for red, yellow, orange and grey artificial prey items. The birds showed some preferences, as they were more willing to eat grey prey as their first choice, but these were not strong preferences. We then trained birds to discriminate red, yellow or variable (red and yellow) signals from grey where colours signalled palatable and unpalatable food. In general, the birds learned the discrimination task equally well, irrespective of which colours signalled unpalatability, and subsequently remembered the distinction between previously palatable and previously unpalatable colours in the memorability test. We did not find strong evidence that variability in the signal affected learning or memory. Our results suggest that, in a task where birds must discriminate between palatable and unpalatable prey, it does not matter which specific colour signals unpalatability, although this might be context-dependent. To study whether training also affects responses to unconditioned stimuli, we included orange prey items in the memorability test. Although orange had been palatable in the initial preference test, the birds ate fewer orange prey items after they had been trained to avoid red, yellow or both colours (variable signal) as unpalatable prey, but did not change their preference when trained that these colourful signals were palatable. This indicates that generalisation occurred more readily after a negative experience than a positive experience, a situation that would potentially allow imperfect mimicry to occur.


Aposematism Avoidance learning Colour preference Parus major Predator psychology 



We would like to thank Dr. Daniel Osorio for help with the designing of prey, Helinä Nisu for taking care of the birds and all of the staff at Konnevesi Research Station for assistance. Dr. Candy Rowe and an anonymous reviewer gave valuable comments to improve the manuscript. The study was funded by the Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence in research and various academy projects), a Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council studentship (A. D. Ham) and a Marie Curie grant (A. D. Ham). All experiments comply with the laws of Finland.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. D. Ham
    • 1
  • E. Ihalainen
    • 2
  • L. Lindström
    • 2
    Email author
  • J. Mappes
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Life Sciences, John Maynard Smith BuildingUniversity of Sussex, FalmerBrightonUK
  2. 2.Department of Biological and Environmental ScienceUniversity of JyväskyläUniversity of JyväskyläFinland

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