International Orthopaedics

, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 1283–1289 | Cite as

Differential expression of adipokines in knee osteoarthritis patients with and without metabolic syndrome

  • Ning Dong
  • Yu-Hang Gao
  • Bo Liu
  • Cheng-Wu Zhao
  • Chen Yang
  • Shu-Qiang Li
  • Jian-Guo Liu
  • Xin Qi
Original Paper



The purpose of this study was to compare adipokines levels in plasma and synovial fluid (SF) between knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS), and to evaluate the associations between adipokines levels and clinical severity of knee osteoarthritis.


Eighty female patients with knee osteoarthritis were enrolled in the study. These patients were divided into two groups: patients with and without MetS. Clinical severity was evaluated according to visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores and Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores. Adipokines and soluble leptin receptor levels in plasma and SF were determined by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.


Forty-three (54%) osteoarthritis patients with MetS and 37 (46%) osteoarthritis patients without MetS were enrolled as MetS-OA group and nMetS-OA group, respectively. VAS pain and WOMAC scores were higher in MetS-OA group compared with those in nMets-OA group (p < 0.01). The leptin and free leptin levels in plasma and SF were significantly higher in MetS-OA group than those in nMetS-OA group, while the adiponectin levels were lower (All p < 0.01). Significant differences existed even after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05). There were no significant associations between adipokines levels and the clinical severity of OA in MetS-OA group and nMetS-OA group respectively (p > 0.05).


Leptin was higher and adiponectin was lower in knee osteoarthritis patients with MetS compared to those without MetS, independent of BMI. The higher SF and plasma levels of leptin in MetS-OA patients may need further studies to delineate their pathophysiological relationships.


Osteoarthritis Metabolic syndrome Adipokines Clinical severity Knee 



The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support of this study by the Natural Science Funding of Jilin province (20160101056JC).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Woolf AD, Pfleger B (2003) Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions. Bull World Health Organ 81(9):646–656PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Courties A, Sellam J, Berenbaum F (2017) Metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 29(2):214–222. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang X, Hunter D, Xu J, Ding C (2015) Metabolic triggered inflammation in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthr Cartil/ OARS Osteoarthr Res Soc 23(1):22–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhuo Q, Yang W, Chen JY, Wang Y (2012) Metabolic syndrome meets osteoarthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol 8(12):729–737. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tomi AL, Sellam J, Lacombe K, Fellahi S, Sebire M, Rey-Jouvin C, Miquel A, Bastard JP, Maheu E, Haugen IK, Felson DT, Capeau J, Girard PM, Berenbaum F, Meynard JL (2016) Increased prevalence and severity of radiographic hand osteoarthritis in patients with HIV-1 infection associated with metabolic syndrome: data from the cross-sectional METAFIB-OA study. Ann Rheum Dis 75(12):2101–2107. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Puenpatom RA, Victor TW (2009) Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals with osteoarthritis: an analysis of NHANES III data. Postgrad Med 121(6):9–20CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Engstrom G, de Verdier MG, Rollof J, Nilsson PM, Lohmander LS (2009) C-reactive protein, metabolic syndrome and incidence of severe hip and knee osteoarthritis. A population-based cohort study. Osteoarthr Cartil 17(2):168–173. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abella V, Scotece M, Conde J, Lopez V, Lazzaro V, Pino J, Gomez-Reino JJ, Gualillo O (2014) Adipokines, metabolic syndrome and rheumatic diseases. J Immunol Res.
  9. 9.
    Fontana L, Eagon JC, Trujillo ME, Scherer PE, Klein S (2007) Visceral fat adipokine secretion is associated with systemic inflammation in obese humans. Diabetes 56(4):1010–1013. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stenholm S, Koster A, Alley DE, Visser M, Maggio M, Harris TB, Egan JM, Bandinelli S, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L (2010) Adipocytokines and the metabolic syndrome among older persons with and without obesity: the InCHIANTI study. Clin Endocrinol 73(1):55–65. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chedraui P, Perez-Lopez FR, Escobar GS, Palla G, Montt-Guevara M, Cecchi E, Genazzani AR, Simoncini T (2014) Circulating leptin, resistin, adiponectin, visfatin, adipsin and ghrelin levels and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with and without the metabolic syndrome. Maturitas 79(1):86–90. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bae YJ, Kim SH, Chung JH, Song SW, Kim KS, Kim MK, Kwon O, Choi MS, Sung MK (2013) Evaluation of adiposity-related biomarkers as metabolic syndrome indicators. Clin Nutr Res 2(2):91–99. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Perruccio AV, Mahomed NN, Chandran V, Gandhi R (2014) Plasma Adipokine levels and their association with overall burden of painful joints among individuals with hip and knee osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 41(2):334–337. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Staikos C, Ververidis A, Drosos G, Manolopoulos VG, Verettas D-A, Tavridou A (2013) The association of adipokine levels in plasma and synovial fluid with the severity of knee osteoarthritis. Rheumatology 52(6):1077–1083. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bas S, Finckh A, Puskas GJ, Suva D, Hoffmeyer P, Gabay C, Lubbeke A (2014) Adipokines correlate with pain in lower limb osteoarthritis: different associations in hip and knee. Int Orthop 38(12):2577–2583. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Karvonen-Gutierrez CA, Harlow SD, Jacobson J, Mancuso P, Jiang Y (2014) The relationship between longitudinal serum leptin measures and measures of magnetic resonance imaging-assessed knee joint damage in a population of mid-life women. Ann Rheum Dis 73(5):883–889. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Courties A, Gualillo O, Berenbaum F, Sellam J (2015) Metabolic stress-induced joint inflammation and osteoarthritis. Osteoarthr Cartil 23(11):1955–1965. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, Gordon DJ, Krauss RM, Savage PJ, Smith SC Jr, Spertus JA, Costa F, American Heart A, National Heart L, Blood I (2005) Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement. Circulation 112(17):2735–2752. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bellamy N, Buchanan WW, Goldsmith CH, Campbell J, Stitt LW (1988) Validation study of WOMAC: a health status instrument for measuring clinically important patient relevant outcomes to antirheumatic drug therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. J Rheumatol 15(12):1833–1840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Berenbaum F, Griffin TM, Liu-Bryan R (2017) Review: metabolic regulation of inflammation in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 69(1):9–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Calvet J, Orellana C, Gratacos J, Berenguer-Llergo A, Caixas A, Chillaron JJ, Pedro-Botet J, Garcia-Manrique M, Navarro N, Larrosa M (2016) Synovial fluid adipokines are associated with clinical severity in knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study in female patients with joint effusion. Arthritis Res Ther 18(1):207. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lubbeke A, Finckh A, Puskas GJ, Suva D, Ladermann A, Bas S, Fritschy D, Gabay C, Hoffmeyer P (2013) Do synovial leptin levels correlate with pain in end stage arthritis? Int Orthop 37(10):2071–2079. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Honsawek S, Chayanupatkul M (2010) Correlation of plasma and synovial fluid adiponectin with knee osteoarthritis severity. Arch Med Res 41(8):593–598. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gomez R, Scotece M, Conde J, Gomez-Reino JJ, Lago F, Gualillo O (2011) Adiponectin and leptin increase IL-8 production in human chondrocytes. Ann Rheum Dis 70(11):2052–U2207. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kusunoki N, Kitahara K, Kojima F, Tanaka N, Kaneko K, Endo H, Suguro T, Kawai S (2010) Adiponectin stimulates prostaglandin E(2) production in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum 62(6):1641–1649. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© SICOT aisbl 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ning Dong
    • 1
  • Yu-Hang Gao
    • 1
  • Bo Liu
    • 1
  • Cheng-Wu Zhao
    • 2
  • Chen Yang
    • 1
  • Shu-Qiang Li
    • 1
  • Jian-Guo Liu
    • 1
  • Xin Qi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryThe First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin UniversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.Department of Sport MedicineThe First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin UniversityChangchunChina

Personalised recommendations