Skip to main content


Log in

Measuring femoral neck torsion angle using femoral neck oblique axial computed tomography reconstruction

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
International Orthopaedics Aims and scope Submit manuscript



To propose a novel method for measuring the femoral neck torsion angle (FNTA) with femoral neck oblique axial computed tomography (CT) reconstruction.


Fifty-five patients (24 females, 31 males; mean age 48.8 years [range, 20–91 years]) were included in the study. CT scans were performed on the left femurs of 27 patients and the right femurs of the remaining 28 patients. The images were analyzed independently by two observers using oblique axial femoral neck CT reconstruction. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was calculated as intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).


FNTA can be measured with high intra-observer (ICC = 0.961) and high inter-observer (ICC = 0.982) agreement. Mean FNTA was slightly larger in women than in men, and the mean left FNTA was slightly larger than the right, but neither difference was statistically significant.


Femoral neck oblique axial CT reconstruction can be used to obtain accurate measurement of FNTA with good reproducibility. No significant differences were found in FNTA between sexes or sides.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Mesgarzadeh M, Revesz G, Bonakdarpour A (1987) Femoral neck torsion angle measurement by computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 11(5):799–803

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Jia J, Li L, Zhang L, Zhao Q, Liu X (2012) Three dimensional-CT evaluation of femoral neck anteversion, acetabular anteversion and combined anteversion in unilateral DDH in an early walking age group. Int Orthop 36(1):119–124

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Teo PC, Kassim AY, Thevarajan K (2013) A 45-degree radiographic method for measuring the neck shaft angle and anteversion of the femur: a pilot study. J Orthop Surg 21(3):340–346

    Google Scholar 

  4. Ogata K, Goldsand EM (1979) A simple biplanar method of measuring femoral anteversion and neck-shaft angle. J Bone Joint Surg Am 61(6A):846–851

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Lee DY, Lee CK, Cho TJ (1992) A new method for measurement of femoral anteversion. A comparative study with other radiographic methods. Int Orthop 16(3):277–281

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Dunn DM (1952) Anteversion of the neck of the femur; a method of measurement. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 34-B(2):181–186

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Haspl M, Bilic R (1996) Assessment of femoral neck-shaft and antetorsion angles. Int Orthop 20(6):363–366

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Moulton A, Upadhyay SS (1982) A direct method of measuring femoral anteversion using ultrasound. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 64(4):469–472

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Tomczak RJ, Guenther KP, Rieber A, Mergo P, Ros PR, Brambs HJ (1997) MR imaging measurement of the femoral antetorsional angle as a new technique: comparison with CT in children and adults. AJR Am J Roentgenol 168(3):791–794

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Sugano N, Noble PC, Kamaric E (1998) A comparison of alternative methods of measuring femoral anteversion. J Comput Assist Tomogr 22(4):610–614

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Hernandez RJ, Tachdjian MO, Poznanski AK, Dias LS (1981) CT determination of femoral torsion. AJR Am J Roentgenol 137(1):97–101

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Weiner DS, Cook AJ, Hoyt WA Jr, Oravec CE (1978) Computed tomography in the measurement of femoral anteversion. Orthopedics 1(4):299–306

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Reikeras O, Bjerkreim I, Kolbenstvedt A (1983) Anteversion of the acetabulum and femoral neck in normals and in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. Acta Orthop Scand 54(1):18–23

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Fleiss JL (2011) Design and analysis of clinical experiments. Wiley, Hoboken

  15. Schneider B, Laubenberger J, Jemlich S, Groene K, Weber HM, Langer M (1997) Measurement of femoral antetorsion and tibial torsion by magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Radiol 70(834):575–579

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Gulan G, Matovinovic D, Nemec B, Rubinic D, Ravlic-Gulan J (2000) Femoral neck anteversion: values, development, measurement, common problems. Coll Antropol 24(2):521–527

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhiyong Hou.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yin, Y., Zhang, L., Hou, Z. et al. Measuring femoral neck torsion angle using femoral neck oblique axial computed tomography reconstruction. International Orthopaedics (SICOT) 40, 371–376 (2016).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: