Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and -7 are used in patients with long-bone fractures, nonunions and spinal fusions. It is unknown whether their potential systemic bioavailability following local bone administration might affect skeletal metabolism. To answer this question, we examined effects of systemically administered BMP-2 and -7 on bone in a newly developed rat model with a low level of calciotropic hormones.
Removal of thyroid and parathyroid glands (TPTx) in rats resulted in a decreased level of calciotropic hormones and subsequent bone loss assessed by micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and measurement of serum bone formation and resorption markers, including osteocalcin, C-telopeptide, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand. Results were complemented with in vitro studies on osteoblast and osteoclast activity by both BMP-2 and -7. The doses used were calculated from published pharmacodynamic studies and bioavailability results from preclinical BMP-2 and -7 studies.
TPTx resulted in bone loss, which was restored by systemic administration of 10–70 μg/kg of BMP-2 and 10–250 μg/kg of BMP-7. BMP-2 showed a higher capacity for enhancing trabecular microarchitecture, whereas BMP-7 augmented trabecular thickness. In vitro experiments revealed that BMP-2 and -7 when uncoupled increased the number and activity of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
Surprisingly, both BMP-2 and -7 showed an increased bone volume in an in vivo environment of low calciotropic hormones. Locally administered BMP-2 and -7 from bone devices might become partially available in circulation but will not mediate systemic bone loss.
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This work was supported in part by the Croatian Science Foundation, project 08/5 BONE6-BIS. We acknowledge Djurdja Car and Mirjana Marija Renic for providing animal care in all rat studies.
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Dumic-Cule, I., Brkljacic, J., Rogic, D. et al. Systemically available bone morphogenetic protein two and seven affect bone metabolism. International Orthopaedics (SICOT) 38, 1979–1985 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00264-014-2425-8
- Bone morphogenetic protein 2
- Bone morphogenetic protein 7
- Bone volume