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Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

, Volume 66, Issue 8, pp 1089–1101 | Cite as

Immune biomarkers for chronic inflammation related complications in non-cancerous and cancerous diseases

  • Yaron Meirow
  • Michal BaniyashEmail author
Focussed Research Review

Abstract

Chronic inflammation arising in a diverse range of non-cancerous and cancerous diseases, dysregulates immunity and exposes patients to a variety of complications. These include immunosuppression, tissue damage, cardiovascular diseases and more. In cancer, chronic inflammation and related immunosuppression can directly support tumor growth and dramatically reduce the efficacies of traditional treatments, as well as novel immune-based therapies, which require a functional immune system. Nowadays, none of the immune biomarkers, regularly used by clinicians can sense a developing chronic inflammation, thus complications can only be detected upon their appearance. This review focuses on the necessity for such immune status biomarkers, which could predict complications prior to their appearance. Herein we bring examples for the use of cellular and molecular biomarkers in diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of patients suffering from various cancers, for prediction of response to immune-based anti-cancer therapy and for prediction of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes patients. Monitoring such biomarkers is expected to have a major clinical impact in addition to unraveling of the entangled complexity underlying dysregulated immunity in chronic inflammation. Thus, newly discovered biomarkers and those that are under investigation are projected to open a new era towards combating the silent damage induced by chronic inflammation.

Keywords

Immune biomarkers Chronic inflammation Immunosuppression Cancer Type 2 diabetes MDSC 

Abbreviations

5FU

5-fluorouracyl

A1c

Glycated hemoglobin

BM

Bone marrow

CAR-T

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell

CRC

Colorectal cancer

CTLA-4

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein 4

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DC

Dendritic cell

HMGB1

High mobility group box 1 protein

hs-CRP

High sensitivity C-reactive protein

IBD

Inflammatory bowel disease

IFN-γ

Interferon gamma

ITAM

Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

MDSC

Myeloid derived suppressor cells

MFI

Mean fluorescence intensity

Mo-MDSC

Monocytic MDSC

NO

Nitric oxide

PD1

Programmed death receptor 1

PD-L1

Programmed death receptor ligand 1

PMN-MDSC

Poly-morpho-nuclear MDSC

RAGE

Receptor for advanced glycation end products

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

sICAM-1

Soluble intracellular adhesion molecule 1

SNX9

Sorting nexin 9

T2DM

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

TCR

T-cell receptor

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor beta

TIL

Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Treg

Regulatory T-cell

VEGF

Vascular-endothelial growth factor

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge Kerem Ben-Meir, Leonor Daniel and Ivan Mikula, who helped in the production of this review. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Society of Research Associates of the Lautenberg Center and the Harold B. Abramson Chair in Immunology. They also thank the Grant support by the Israel Science Foundation (ISF), Joint Program between the Israel Science Foundation (ISF) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) the Israeli Ministry of Health, the Joint German-Israeli Research Program (DKFZ), the Israel Cancer Research Fund (ICRF), Israeli Ministry of Economy Chief Scientist’s program for Industrial Application of Academic Research (NOFAR), and the Joseph and Matilda Melnick Funds.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No conflicts of interest were disclosed.

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Lautenberg Center for General and Tumor Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Israel-Canada Medical Research InstituteThe Hebrew UniversityJerusalemIsrael

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