Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

, Volume 62, Issue 7, pp 1137–1148 | Cite as

Immune-suppressive properties of the tumor microenvironment

  • Jürgen C. BeckerEmail author
  • Mads Hald Andersen
  • David Schrama
  • Per thor Straten


Solid tumors are more than an accumulation of cancer cells. Indeed, cancerous cells create a permissive microenvironment by exploiting non-transformed host cells. Thus, solid tumors rather resemble abnormal organs composed of the cancerous cells itself and the stroma providing the supportive framework. The stroma can be divided into the extracellular matrix consisting of proteoglycans, hyaluronic acid, and fibrous proteins, as well as stromal cells including mesenchymal and immune cells; moreover, it contains various peptide factors and metabolites. Here, we will focus on immune-modulating capacities of the tumor microenvironment.


A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) Arginase Hypoxia Adenosine Natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) ligands 


Conflict of interest

Jürgen C. Becker is a paid Advisor for and Member of the Speakers Bureau of Bristol-Myers Squibb, Glaxo-Smith-Kline, Leo Pharma, and Novartis. All other authors do not have any conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jürgen C. Becker
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mads Hald Andersen
    • 2
  • David Schrama
    • 1
  • Per thor Straten
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of General DermatologyMedical University of GrazGrazAustria
  2. 2.Department of Hematology, Center for Cancer Immune Therapy (CCIT)University Hospital HerlevHerlevDenmark

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