Serum antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a new prognostic indicator in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma
- 82 Downloads
A recent study reported that a diet rich in bread and refined cereals might have an unfavorable role in the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). To test whether an underlying intolerance of bread ingredients is responsible for the unfavorable influence of bread on RCC, we examined patient sera for the presence of food-specific IgG.
A commercial test was used to detect food-specific IgG directed against a panel of 113 food antigens in sera of 54 patients with metastatic RCC. Kaplan–Meier estimates were used for univariate survival analysis, and differences in survival curves were assessed with the log-rank test. Multivariate survival analysis was done using a Cox regression model.
We found that RCC patients with elevated serum levels of IgG antibodies against S. cerevisiae, commonly known as baker’s yeast and yet another bread component, have an unfavorable clinical course. Median survival of patients with high levels of S. cerevisiae IgG was only 17.8 months, whereas median survival of patients with low S. cerevisiae IgG was 43.8 months (P = 0.0022; log-rank). Multivariate survival analysis identified high levels of S. cerevisiae IgG as a strong and independent prognostic risk factor (risk ratio 4.6, P = 0.001; 95% CI 1.61–13.08).
Our findings indicate that serum levels of IgG against S. cerevisiae may predict survival in patients with metastatic RCC. The data suggest not cereals but baker’s yeast being the critical component of bread that may cause immune deviation and impaired immunosurveillance in predisposed RCC patients.
KeywordsRenal cell carcinoma Prognosis T helper cells
We thank Christoph Eliskases for technical support. We also thank G. Bartsch, Head of the Department of Urology, for continuous support.
- 16.Gripp S, Moeller S, Bolke E, Schmitt G, Matuschek C, Asgari S, Asgharzadeh F, Roth S, Budach W, Franz M, Willers R (2007) Survival prediction in terminally ill cancer patients by clinical estimates, laboratory tests, and self-rated anxiety and depression. J Clin Oncol 25:3313–3320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.LeibundGut-Landmann S, Gross O, Robinson MJ, Osorio F, Slack EC, Tsoni SV, Schweighoffer E, Tybulewicz V, Brown GD, Ruland J, Reis e Sousa C (2007) Syk- and CARD9-dependent coupling of innate immunity to the induction of T helper cells that produce interleukin 17. Nat Immunol 8:630–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Negrier S, Perol D, Menetrier-Caux C, Escudier B, Pallardy M, Ravaud A, Douillard JY, Chevreau C, Lasset C, Blay JY (2004) Interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and vascular endothelial growth factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: prognostic value of interleukin-6—from the Groupe Francais d’Immunotherapie. J Clin Oncol 22:2371–2378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.Quinton JF, Sendid B, Reumaux D, Duthilleul P, Cortot A, Grandbastien B, Charrier G, Targan SR, Colombel JF, Poulain D (1998) Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies combined with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in inflammatory bowel disease: prevalence and diagnostic role. Gut 42:788–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.Wierecky J, Muller MR, Wirths S, Halder-Oehler E, Dorfel D, Schmidt SM, Hantschel M, Brugger W, Schroder S, Horger MS, Kanz L, Brossart P (2006) Immunologic and clinical responses after vaccinations with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells in metastatic renal cancer patients. Cancer Res 66:5910–5918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 41.Ye P, Rodriguez FH, Kanaly S, Stocking KL, Schurr J, Schwarzenberger P, Oliver P, Huang W, Zhang P, Zhang J, Shellito JE, Bagby GJ, Nelson S, Charrier K, Peschon JJ, Kolls JK (2001) Requirement of interleukin 17 receptor signaling for lung CXC chemokine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression, neutrophil recruitment, and host defense. J Exp Med 194:519–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar