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Mesenchymal tumors of the stomach: radiologic and pathologic correlation

Abstract

Mesenchymal tumors of the stomach are uncommon, with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) being the most common among them. Majority of the tumors may arise from cells of Cajal, smooth muscle cells, neural cells, totipotent stem cells, adipocytes or fibroblasts. Imaging plays an important role not only in staging but also in characterizing these tumors. Many of these tumors have characteristic imaging features. GISTs usually present as large cavitating and necrotic tumors with exophytic component. Presence of fat tissue within the tumor suggests a lipoma or a teratoma, early phase hyperenhancement indicates glomus tumor and hemangioma, and delayed contrast enhancement is seen in schwannoma. Their differentiation from epithelial tumors like carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors is often possible based on the location (mesenchymal tumors are intramural), spread, morphological appearance and enhancement patterns. However, overlapping features exist between these tumors with imaging often being only suggestive. A biopsy is necessary for a definitive diagnosis in many cases.

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Idea for the article—KSM. Literature search and data analysis—KSM, PD Initial draft and critical revision of the work—KSM, PD.

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Correspondence to Kumble Seetharama Madhusudhan.

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Madhusudhan, K.S., Das, P. Mesenchymal tumors of the stomach: radiologic and pathologic correlation. Abdom Radiol 47, 1988–2003 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00261-022-03498-1

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Keywords

  • Mesenchymal tumor
  • Gastric tumors
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
  • Leiomyoma
  • Leiomyosarcoma
  • Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor