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Sciatic foramen anatomy and common pathologies: a pictorial review

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Abstract

This article reviews the relevant anatomy, imaging features on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and management of common processes involving the sciatic foramen. The anatomy of the sciatic foramen is complex and provides an important conduit between the pelvis, gluteus, and lower extremity. This paper reviewed the anatomy, common pathologies, and imaging features of this region including trauma, infection, nerve entrapment, tumor spread, hernia, and vascular anomaly.

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Abbreviations

GSF:

Greater sciatic foramen

LSF:

Lesser sciatic foramen

SS:

Sacrospinous

ST:

Sacrotuberous

SI:

Sacroiliac

CT:

Computed tomography

MRI:

Magnetic resonance imaging

PMS:

Piriformis muscle syndrome

PS:

Piriformis syndrome

PN:

Pudendal neuralgia

CTA:

CT angiography

MRA:

Magnetic resonance angiography

PSA:

Persistent sciatic artery

PNST:

Peripheral nerve sheath tumor

NF1:

Neurofibromatosis type 1

T1W:

T1-weighted

US:

Ultrasound

T2W:

T2-weighted

CECT:

Contrast-enhanced CT

MVA:

Motor vehicle accident

MM:

Multiple myeloma

ADPKD:

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

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Cai, Z.J., Salem, A.E., Wagner-Bartak, N.A. et al. Sciatic foramen anatomy and common pathologies: a pictorial review. Abdom Radiol 47, 378–398 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03265-8

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