Abdominal Radiology

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 509–516 | Cite as

Imaging features related with prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

  • Chansik An
  • Myeong-Jin KimEmail author
Pictorial essay


We discuss various imaging features that have been reported to be associated with the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but not included in the current staging systems: findings related with microvascular invasion, tumor encapsulation, intratumoral fat, presence of satellite nodules, peritumoral hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic-acid enhanced MRI, restricted diffusion, and irregular rim-like hyperenhancement. Current evidence suggests that larger (> 2 cm) tumor size, presence of satellite nodules, presence of irregular rim-like hyperenhancement of a tumor, peritumoral parenchymal enhancement in the arterial phase, and peritumoral hypointensity observed on hepatobiliary phase images are independent imaging features to portend a worse prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Key words

Prognosis Hepatocellular carcinoma Magnetic resonance imaging Computed tomography 


Compliance with ethical standards



Conflict of interest

Chansik An and Myeong-Jin Kim declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance HospitalYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea

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