High spatial resolution navigated 3D T1-weighted hepatobiliary MR cholangiography using Gd-EOB-DTPA for evaluation of biliary anatomy in living liver donors

  • Jei Hee Lee
  • Bohyun Kim
  • Hye Jin Kim
  • Bong-Wan Kim
  • Hee-Jung Wang
  • Jai Keun Kim



To determine the feasibility of high-resolution navigated three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted hepatobiliary MR cholangiography (Nav T1 MRC) using Gd-EOB-DTPA for biliary visualization in living liver donors and to assess added value of 3D T1-weighted hepatobiliary MRCs in improving the confidence and diagnostic accuracy of biliary anatomy in complementary to T2-weighted MRCs.


Twenty-nine right liver donors underwent 3D T2 MRC, 2D T2 MRC, breath-hold T1-weighted hepatobiliary MRC (BH T1 MRC), and Nav T1 MRC. Two readers independently reviewed and compared 3D/2D MRC set, added BH T1 MRC set, and added Nav T1 MRC set for biliary diagnostic accuracy and confidence. For each MRC, biliary segments visualization and image quality were scored.


Both BH T1 MRC and Nav T1 MRC improved accuracy and specificity in biliary diagnosis when added to 3D/2D T2 MRC-alone set, though without statistical significance (R1, 82.8% to 93.1%; R2, 82.8% to 89.7%). The added Nav T1 MRC set showed the highest diagnostic confidence with both readers. Both readers scored Nav T1 MRC with the highest visualization scores for branching ducts and overall ducts.


Combining T1-weighted hepatobiliary MRCs to 3D/2D T2 MRC set improved accuracy for biliary anatomy diagnosis; time-efficient BH T1 MRC in axial and coronal planes should be considered as a key MRC sequence complementary to T2 MRCs. Given excellent biliary visualization and superior diagnostic confidence, Nav T1 MRC in selected subjects with breath-hold difficulties and inconclusive or complex biliary variations may assist in reaching a correct biliary diagnosis.


Liver transplantation Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography Gadoxetate disodium 



MR Cholangiography


Intraoperative cholangiography


Compliance with ethical standards


No funding was received for this study.

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine and Graduate School of MedicineAjou University HospitalSuwonSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Liver Transplantation and Hepatobiliary Surgery, Ajou University School of Medicine and Graduate School of MedicineAjou University HospitalSuwonSouth Korea

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