Abdominal Radiology

, Volume 43, Issue 4, pp 861–879 | Cite as

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the liver: technical and lexicon recommendations from the ACR CEUS LI-RADS working group

  • Andrej Lyshchik
  • Yuko Kono
  • Christoph F. Dietrich
  • Hyun-Jung Jang
  • Tae Kyoung Kim
  • Fabio Piscaglia
  • Alexander Vezeridis
  • Juergen K. Willmann
  • Stephanie R. Wilson


Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a specific form of ultrasound imaging performed with intravenous administration of microbubble contrast agents. It has been extensively used for liver tumor characterization and was recently added to the American College of Radiology Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (CEUS LI-RADS). This paper describes technical recommendations for successful liver CEUS lesion characterization, and provides imaging protocol and Lexicon of imaging findings.


Liver Ultrasound Contrast-enhanced ultrasound 



The authors would like to dedicate this manuscript to our dear friend Dr. David Cosgrove (1938–2017). David was a thought leader in the clinical ultrasound and a passionate advocate of CEUS. He was one of the founding members of the CEUS LI-RADS Working Group and spent countless hours working on this project. His extraordinary knowledge, enthusiasm, and dedication were extremely valuable and will be greatly missed. Supported in part by NCI Grant R01 CA215520-01A1.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

Andrej Lyshchik: Research support: GE, Siemens, Toshiba; Advisory Board: Bracco; Speaker: GE, SonoScape. Yuko Kono: Research support: Toshiba, GE, Lantheus. Christoph F Dietrich: Advisory Board; Hitachi, Mindray, JAZZ. Speaker: Hitachi, Supersonic, Siemens, Mindray, GE, Bracco, Pentax, Novartis. Hyun-Jung Jang: none. Tae Kyoung Kim: none. Fabio Piscaglia: Research support: Esaote; Advisory Board: Bayer, Eisai; Speaker: Bracco, Bayer. Alexander Vezeridis: none. Juergen K Willmann: Research support: Siemens, GE, Philips, Bracco; Consulting: Bracco, Triple Ring Technologies; Advisory Board: Lantheus, Bracco, SonoVol. Stephanie R Wilson: Research support: Siemens, Philips and Samsung; Speaker: GE and Samsung


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrej Lyshchik
    • 1
  • Yuko Kono
    • 2
  • Christoph F. Dietrich
    • 3
  • Hyun-Jung Jang
    • 4
  • Tae Kyoung Kim
    • 4
  • Fabio Piscaglia
    • 5
  • Alexander Vezeridis
    • 6
  • Juergen K. Willmann
    • 7
  • Stephanie R. Wilson
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyThomas Jefferson University HospitalPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Medicine and RadiologyUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Internal Medicine 2Caritas-Krankenhaus Bad MergentheimBad MergentheimGermany
  4. 4.Department of Medical ImagingUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Unit of Internal Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical SciencesS. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of BolognaBolognaItaly
  6. 6.Department of RadiologyUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA
  7. 7.Department of RadiologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  8. 8.Division of GastroenterologyUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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