Abdominal Radiology

, Volume 42, Issue 11, pp 2615–2622 | Cite as

Fully navigated 3 T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver metastases with inner-volume saturation

  • Carolin ReischauerEmail author
  • Andreas Hock
  • Orpheus Kolokythas
  • Christoph A. Binkert
  • Andreas Gutzeit



To demonstrate that fully navigated magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with inner-volume saturation (IVS) at 3 T results in high-quality spectra that permit evaluating metabolic changes in hepatic metastases without the need for patient compliance.


Nine patients with untreated, biopsy-proven large hepatic metastases (minimum diameter of 3 cm) were included. In each patient, localized proton MRS was performed in the metastatic lesion and in uninvolved liver parenchyma. To improve quality and consistency of proton MRS, navigator gating was thereby performed not only during acquisition of the spectroscopic data but also during localization imaging and throughout the preparation phases. IVS was utilized to reduce chemical shift displacement between different metabolites and to diminish flow artifacts. Metabolite quantities were normalized relative to the unsuppressed water peak and choline-containing compounds (CCC) to lipid ratios were determined. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to assess differences in the amounts of lipids and CCC as well as the CCC-to-lipid ratios between liver metastases and normal-appearing liver parenchyma.


Fully navigated point-resolved spectroscopy with IVS resulted in high-quality spectra in all patients. Navigator gating during localization imaging and spectroscopic acquisition thereby ensured a precise localization of the spectroscopic voxel. Decreased quantities of lipid and CCC were observed in metastatic tissue compared with uninvolved liver parenchyma. However, the latter trend fell short of statistical significance. Moreover, elevated levels of the CCC-to-lipid ratios were detected in metastatic tissue relative to normal-appearing liver parenchyma.


The present study demonstrates that fully navigated MRS of the liver with IVS at 3 T allows for a precise localization of the spectroscopic voxel and results in high-quality spectra that permit evaluating liver metabolism without the need for patient compliance.


Magnetic resonance spectroscopy Liver metastases In vivo Navigator gating High field 


Compliance with ethical standards


No funding was received for this study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Institutional review board approval and waiver for informed consent was obtained for this retrospective study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carolin Reischauer
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Andreas Hock
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Orpheus Kolokythas
    • 6
  • Christoph A. Binkert
    • 6
  • Andreas Gutzeit
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research UnitHirslanden Hospital St. AnnaLucerneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Institute for Biomedical EngineeringETH and University of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyParacelsus Medical University SalzburgSalzburgAustria
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy of PsychosomaticsZurich University Hospital for PsychiatryZurichSwitzerland
  5. 5.Philips HealthcareHamburgGermany
  6. 6.Department of Radiology and Nuclear MedicineCantonal Hospital WinterthurWinterthurSwitzerland

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