Prognostic value of SPECT myocardial perfusion entropy in high-risk type 2 diabetic patients



Risk stratification of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) remains suboptimal. We hypothesized that myocardial perfusion entropy (MPE) quantified from SPECT myocardial perfusion images may provide incremental prognostic value in T2D patients independently from myocardial ischemia.


T2D patients with very high and high cardiovascular risk were prospectively included (n = 166, 65 ± 12 years). Stress perfusion defect was quantified by visual evaluation of SPECT MPI. SPECT MPI was also used for the quantification of rest and stress MPE. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and myocardial revascularization > 3 months after SPECT.


Forty-four MACEs were observed during a 4.6-year median follow-up. Significant differences in stress MPE were observed between patients with and without MACEs (4.19 ± 0.46 vs. 3.93 ± 0.40; P ≤ .01). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the risk of MACEs was significantly higher in patients with higher stress MPE (log-rank P ≤ 01). Stress MPE and stress perfusion defect (SSS ≥ 4) were significantly associated with the risk of MACEs (hazard ratio 2.77 and 2.06, respectively, P < .05 for both) after adjustment for clinical and imaging risk predictors as identified from preliminary univariate analysis. MPE demonstrated incremental prognostic value over clinical risk factors, stress test EKG and SSS as evidenced by nested models showing improved Akaike information criterion (AIC), reclassification (global continuous net reclassification improvement [NRI]: 63), global integrated discrimination improvement (IDI: 6%), and discrimination (change in c-statistic: 0.66 vs 0.74).


Stress MPE provided independent and incremental prognostic information for the prediction of MACEs in diabetic patients.

Trial registration number

NCT02316054 (12/12/2014).

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Results from the present study have been partially presented at the EANM 2019 congress (presentation # EPS-087;;

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Correspondence to Loïc Djaileb.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the regional ethics committee (CECIC Rhône-Alpes Auvergne) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Djaileb, L., Seiller, A., Canu, M. et al. Prognostic value of SPECT myocardial perfusion entropy in high-risk type 2 diabetic patients. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging (2020).

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  • Myocardial perfusion
  • Perfusion entropy
  • Prognosis
  • Diabetes