Comparison of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT with [18F]NaF PET/CT in the evaluation of bone metastases in metastatic prostate cancer patients prior to radionuclide therapy
The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in the evaluation of bone metastases in metastatic prostate cancer (PC) patients scheduled for radionuclide therapy in comparison to [18F]sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) PET/CT.
Sixteen metastatic PC patients with known skeletal metastases, who underwent both 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and 18F-NaF PET/CT for assessment of metastatic burden prior to radionuclide therapy, were analysed retrospectively. The performance of both tracers was calculated on a lesion-based comparison. Intensity of tracer accumulation of pathologic bone lesions on 18F-NaF PET and 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET was measured with maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and compared to background activity of normal bone. In addition, SUVmax values of PET-positive bone lesions were analysed with respect to morphologic characteristics on CT. Bone metastases were either confirmed by CT or follow-up PET scan.
In contrast to 468 PET-positive lesions suggestive of bone metastases on 18F-NaF PET, only 351 of the lesions were also judged positive on 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET (75.0%). Intensity of tracer accumulation of pathologic skeletal lesions was significantly higher on 18F-NaF PET compared to 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET, showing a median SUVmax of 27.0 and 6.0, respectively (p < 0.001). Background activity of normal bone was lower on 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET, with a median SUVmax of 1.0 in comparison to 2.7 on 18F-NaF PET; however, tumour to background ratio was significantly higher on 18F-NaF PET (9.8 versus 5.9 on 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET; p = 0.042). Based on morphologic lesion characterisation on CT, 18F-NaF PET revealed median SUVmax values of 23.6 for osteosclerotic, 35.0 for osteolytic, and 19.0 for lesions not visible on CT, whereas on 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET median SUVmax values of 5.0 in osteosclerotic, 29.5 in osteolytic, and 7.5 in lesions not seen on CT were measured. Intensity of tracer accumulation between18F-NaF PET and 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET was significantly higher in osteosclerotic (p < 0.001) and lesions not visible on CT (p = 0.012).
In comparison to 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT, 18F-NaF PET/CT detects a higher number of pathologic bone lesions in advanced stage PC patients scheduled for radionuclide therapy. Our data suggest that 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET should be combined with 18F-NaF PET in PC patients with skeletal metastases for restaging prior to initiation or modification of therapy.
KeywordsProstate cancer Bone metastases Restaging 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT 18F-NaF PET/CT
We want to express our gratitude to all the members of our PET staff for their contribution in performing this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the principles of the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its subsequent amendments . All patients published in this manuscript signed a written informed consent to the PET studies.
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