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Detection of bone marrow metastases in children and young adults with solid cancers with diffusion-weighted MRI

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Abstract

Objective

To compare the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI with b-values of 50 s/mm2 and 800 s/mm2 for the detection of bone marrow metastases in children and young adults with solid malignancies.

Methods

In an institutional review board-approved prospective study, we performed 51 whole-body DW-MRI scans in 19 children and young adults (14 males, 5 females; age range: 1–25 years) with metastasized cancers before (n = 19 scans) and after (n = 32 scans) chemotherapy. Two readers determined the presence of focal bone marrow lesions in 10 anatomical areas. A third reader measured ADC and SNR of focal lesions and normal marrow. Simultaneously acquired 18F-FDG-PET scans served as the standard of reference. Data of b = 50 s/mm2 and 800 s/mm2 images were compared with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Inter-reader agreement was evaluated with weighted kappa statistics.

Results

The SNR of bone marrow metastases was significantly higher compared to normal bone marrow on b = 50 s/mm2 (mean ± SD: 978.436 ± 1239.436 vs. 108.881 ± 109.813, p < 0.001) and b = 800 s/mm2 DW-MRI (499.638 ± 612.721 vs. 86.280 ± 89.120; p < 0.001). On 30 out of 32 post-treatment DW-MRI scans, reconverted marrow demonstrated low signal with low ADC values (0.385 × 10−3 ± 0.168 × 10−3mm2/s). The same number of metastases (556/588; 94.6%; p > 0.99) was detected on b = 50 s/mm2 and 800 s/mm2 images. However, both normal marrow and metastases exhibited low signals on ADC maps, limiting the ability to delineate metastases. The inter-reader agreement was substantial, with a weighted kappa of 0.783 and 0.778, respectively.

Conclusion

Bone marrow metastases in children and young adults can be equally well detected on b = 50 s/mm2 and 800 s/mm2 images, but ADC values can be misleading.

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Data Availability

Data generated or analyzed during the study are available from the corresponding author by request.

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Acknowledgements

We thank members of the Daldrup-Link lab for their valuable input and discussions regarding this project.

Funding

This work was in part supported by a grant from the National Cancer Institute, grant number R01CA269231. Statistical analysis for this work was also partially supported by the Biostatistics Shared Resources, which is funded by the Cancer Center Support Grant, P30CA124435.

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Correspondence to Heike E. Daldrup-Link.

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Rashidi, A., Baratto, L., Jayapal, P. et al. Detection of bone marrow metastases in children and young adults with solid cancers with diffusion-weighted MRI. Skeletal Radiol 52, 1179–1192 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00256-022-04240-0

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