Multiple osteolytic lesions are a well-recognized and typical imaging feature of multiple myeloma as well as several other plasma cell disorders. Given the high volume of imaging studies obtained of multiple myeloma patients, radiologists will likely encounter a subset of multiple myeloma patients with less common or “atypical” findings during their practice. These atypical findings include osteosclerotic lesions, extramedullary lesions, and amyloid deposition. Similar imaging findings that are considered atypical for multiple myeloma can also be detected in other plasma cell disorders that are distinct from multiple myeloma. For instance, POEMS syndrome is a distinct plasma cell disorder from multiple myeloma, but also can present with osteosclerotic lesions. This article reviews the atypical findings associated with multiple myeloma and also reviews other plasma cell disorders that can have a similar spectrum of imaging findings. Special attention is paid to the musculoskeletal imaging findings.
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Stanborough, R.O., Garner, H.W. Multiple myeloma: a review of atypical imaging features and other distinct plasma cell disorders that demonstrate similar imaging features. Skeletal Radiol 51, 135–144 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00256-021-03792-x