Skeletal Radiology

, Volume 47, Issue 9, pp 1277–1284 | Cite as

The location of the peroneus longus tendon in the cuboid groove: sonographic study in various positions of the ankle–foot in asymptomatic volunteers

  • Hye Jung Choo
  • Sun Joo Lee
  • Brady K. Huang
  • Donald L. Resnick
Scientific Article



To evaluate the normal location of the peroneus longus tendon (PL) in the cuboid groove in various ankle–foot positions by ultrasonography in asymptomatic volunteers.

Materials and methods

Ultrasonographic assessment of the PL in the cuboid groove was performed in 20 feet of ten healthy volunteers. Each PL was examined in five ankle–foot positions (i.e., neutral, dorsiflexion, plantar-flexion, supination, and pronation). The PL location was qualitatively categorized as “inside” when the PL was entirely within the cuboid groove, as “overlying” when some part of the PL was perched on the cuboid tuberosity, and as “outside” when the PL was entirely on the cuboid tuberosity. For quantitative evaluation of the PL location, the distance between the PL and the cuboid groove was measured. The width of the cuboid groove was measured in the neutral position.


The PL location did not significantly change with changes in the ankle–foot position. Qualitatively, an “overlying” PL was the most common type, regardless of the ankle–foot position. “Inside” PLs were found in only 35, 20, 30, 25, and 35% of feet in neutral, dorsiflexion, plantar-flexion, supination, and pronation positions, respectively. The quantitative PL location was also not significantly different among all ankle–foot positions and it was significantly negatively correlated with the cuboid groove width.


In healthy volunteers, 65% or more of the PLs were partially or completely located outside of the cuboid groove, regardless of the ankle–foot position. The PL location relative to the cuboid groove was related to the cuboid groove width.


Ultrasonography Peroneus longus tendon Foot Cuboid 


Compliance with ethical standards

Financial disclosures

The authors have no financial disclosures to report.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


  1. 1.
    Sarrafian SK, Kelikian AS. Sarrafian’s anatomy of the foot and ankle: descriptive, topographic, functional. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Heckman DS, Gluck GS, Parekh SG. Tendon disorders of the foot and ankle, part 1: peroneal tendon disorders. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:614–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schubert R. MRI of peroneal tendinopathies resulting from trauma or overuse. Br J Radiol. 2013;86:20110750.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Taljanovic MS, Alcala JN, Gimber LH, Rieke JD, Chilvers MM, Latt LD. High-resolution US and MR imaging of peroneal tendon injuries. Radiographics. 2015;35:179–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rademaker J, Rosenberg ZS, Delfaut EM, Cheung YY, Schweitzer ME. Tear of the peroneus longus tendon: MR imaging features in nine patients. Radiology. 2000;214:700–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stone TJ, Rosenberg ZS, Velez ZR, Ciavarra G, Prost R, Bencardino JT. Subluxation of the peroneus long tendon in the cuboid tunnel: is it normal or pathologic? An ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging study. Skelet Radiol. 2016;45:357–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guimerá V, Lafuente A, Zambrana L, Rodriguez-Niedenführ M, Sañudo JR, Vazquez T. The peroneocuboid joint: morphogenesis and anatomical study. J Anat. 2015;226:104–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ebraheim NA, Lu J, Haman SP, Yang H, Yeasting RA. Cartilage and synovium of the peroneocuboid joint: an anatomic and histological study. Foot Ankle Int. 1999;20:108–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Taneja AK, Simeone FJ, Chang CY, et al. Peroneal tendon abnormalities in subjects with an enlarged peroneal tubercle. Skelet Radiol. 2013;42:1703–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang XT, Rosenberg ZS, Mechlin MB, Schweitzer ME. Normal variants and diseases of the peroneal tendons and superior peroneal retinaculum: MR imaging features. Radiographics. 2005;25:587–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Saupe N, Mengiardi B, Pfirrmann CW, Vienne P, Seifert B, Zanetti M. Anatomic variants associated with peroneal tendon disorders: MR imaging findings in volunteers with asymptomatic ankles. Radiology. 2007;242:509–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Adachi N, Fukuhara K, Kobayashi T, Nakasa T, Ochi M. Morphologic variations of the fibular malleolar groove with recurrent dislocation of the peroneal tendons. Foot Ankle Int. 2009;30:540–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mittal PS, Joshi SS, Chhaparwal R, Joshi SD. Prevalence and mophometry of os peroneum amongst central Indians. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8:AC08–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bianchi S, Bortolotto C, Draghi F. Os peroneum imaging: normal appearance and pathological findings. Insights Imaging. 2017;8:59–68.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brigido MK, Fessell DP, Jacobson JA. Radiography and US of os peroneum fractures and associated peroneal tendon injuries: initial experience. Radiology. 2005;237:235–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stockton KG, Brodsky JW. Peroneus longus tears associated with pathology of the os peroneum. Foot Ankle Int. 2014;35:346–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISS 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hye Jung Choo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sun Joo Lee
    • 1
  • Brady K. Huang
    • 2
  • Donald L. Resnick
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyInje University Busan Paik HospitalBusanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity of California, San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations