The use of alternative technologies to develop malolactic fermentation in wine
The development of the malolactic fermentation, bioconversion of L-malic acid to L-lactic acid, is a difficult and time-consuming process that does not always proceed favorably under the natural conditions of wine. Traditional fermentations are used worldwide to produce high-quality wines, although delay or failure is not an unusual outcome. During recent years several technologies have been proposed to induce biological deacidification of wines by using malolactic bacteria, principally Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus sp. These alternative technologies usually involve the use of high densities of cells or enzymes, free or immobilized onto different matrices. Immobilization materials, several types of bioreactors, and the properties of many specific systems are discussed in this review.
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