Metabolic profiling of cold adaptation of a deep-sea psychrotolerant Microbacterium sediminis to prolonged low temperature under high hydrostatic pressure

  • Jin-Mei Xia
  • Xiao-Min Hu
  • Cai-Hua Huang
  • Li-Bo Yu
  • Ru-Fang Xu
  • Xi-Xiang TangEmail author
  • Dong-Hai LinEmail author
Applied microbial and cell physiology


The most wide-spread “hostile” environmental factor for marine microorganisms is low temperature, which is usually accompanied by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Metabolic mechanisms of marine microorganisms adapting to prolonged low temperature under HHP remain to be clarified. To reveal the underlying metabolic mechanisms, we performed NMR-based metabolomic analysis of aqueous extracts derived from a psychrotolerant Microbacterium sediminis YLB-01, which was isolated from deep-sea sediment and possess great biotechnology potentials. The YLB-01 cells were firstly cultivated at the optimal condition (28 °C, 0.1 MPa) for either 18 h (logarithmic phase) or 24 h (stationary phase), then continually cultivated at either 28 °C or 4 °C under HHP (30 MPa) for 7 days. The cells cultivated at low temperature, which experienced cold stress, were distinctly distinguished from those at normal temperature. Cold stress primarily induced metabolic changes in amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, the logarithmic and stationary phase cells cultivated at low temperature exhibited distinct metabolic discrimination, which was mostly reflected in the significantly disturbed carbohydrate metabolism. The logarithmic phase cells displayed suppressed TCA cycle, while the stationary phase cells showed decreased pyruvate and increased lactate. In addition, we performed transcriptome analysis for the stationary phase cells to support the metabolomic analysis. Our results suggest that the cold adaptation of the psychrotroph YLB-01 is closely associated with profoundly altered amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism. Our work provides a mechanistic understanding of the metabolic adaptation of marine psychrotrophs to prolonged low temperature under HHP.


Microbacterium Cold adaptation Metabolomics 1H NMR Low temperature High hydrostatic pressure 


Data availability statement

The metabolomic data reported in this article are available via [UCSD Metabolomics Workbench,] study identifier [1285].

Author contributions

DHL, XXT, and CHH conceived and designed the research. JMX and DHL wrote the manuscript. XMH and JMX conducted the experiments and analyzed the data. LBY isolated the M. sediminis YLB-01 strain. RFX analyzed the transcriptomic data. All the authors have read and approved this manuscript.

Funding information

The work was funded by National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2015CB755901), the Xiamen Ocean Economic Innovation and Development Demonstration Project (No.16PZP001SF16), the Scientific Research Foundation of Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources (No. 2017035), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41376172, 81661138005, 31971357).

Compliance with ethical standards

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

253_2019_10134_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (646 kb)
ESM 1. Specific growth rates of YLB-01 cells at 28 °C and 4 °C under different hydrostatic pressures (Fig. S1), the growth curve of the YLB-01 cells cultivated at 28 °C under 0.1 MPa (Fig. S2), multivariate analyses of 1H NMR spectra derived from the LT-L and NT-L cells (Fig. S3), and those from the HP-S and NP-S cells (Fig. S4), 1H NMR assignments of metabolites in aqueous extracts derived from the YLB-01 cells (Table S1), significant metabolites identified from the OPLS-DA analysis of LT-L cells vs. NT-L cells (Table S2). (PDF 645 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Marine Genetic Resources, Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources, Fujian Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic ResourcesThird Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural ResourcesXiamenChina
  2. 2.College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, MOE Key Laboratory of Spectrochemical Analysis & InstrumentationXiamen UniversityXiamenChina
  3. 3.Research and Communication Center of Exercise and HealthXiamen University of TechnologyXiamenChina
  4. 4.China Ocean Sample Respository (Biology)XiamenChina

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