Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 19, pp 8191–8202 | Cite as

Genome-centered omics insight into the competition and niche differentiation of Ca. Jettenia and Ca. Brocadia affiliated to anammox bacteria

  • Yunpeng Zhao
  • Ying Feng
  • Liming Chen
  • Zhao Niu
  • Sitong LiuEmail author
Environmental biotechnology


Although the niche differentiation of anammox bacteria has been extensively observed in a lab-scale reactor, the inherent mechanism for this ecological phenomenon is still elusive. Here, we combined the long-term reactor operation, genome-centered metagenome, and metatranscriptome analyses to gain insight into the substrate competition and niche differentiation of Candidatus Jettenia and Candidatus Brocadia. After 146 days of operation, we found the anammox bacterial population shifted from Ca. Jettenia to Ca. Brocadia in the immobilization-anaerobic baffled reactor (I-ABR) with the ammonium and nitrite concentrations of 30 mg/L. Importantly, the genome and transcript comparisons of Ca. Jettenia and Ca. Brocadia showed that Ca. Brocadia harbored more complete function in cell chemotaxis, flagellar assembly, and two-component system and more redundant function in nitrite reduction, in which the genes were also highly expressed. Ca. Brocadia out-competed Ca. Jettenia at the mainstream condition. Meanwhile, though the highest biomass concentration led to the highest nitrogen removal rate (NRR) in the first compartment (C1), the competition of Ca. Jettenia and Ca. Brocadia could also affect the NRR of different compartments through affecting the bacterial activity. Substrate competition of anammox bacteria led to higher transcript activity of Ca. Jettenia and Ca. Brocadia in the second (C2) and fourth (C4) compartments, respectively. Further, high transcript activity of Ca. Brocadia led to the higher NRR in C4. A comparison of metabolic potential based on the metagenome-assembled genome adds a different dimension for understanding the discrepantly physiological characteristics and competition of anammox bacteria for wastewater treatment.


Anammox bacteria Genome-centered omics Genome comparison Competition Niche differentiation 



This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China (Nos. 51878008 and 91647211).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies involving human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

253_2019_10040_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (724 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 724 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yunpeng Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ying Feng
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Liming Chen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zhao Niu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sitong Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Environmental Sciences and EngineeringPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment SciencesMinistry of Education of ChinaBeijingChina
  3. 3.International Joint Laboratory for Regional Pollution Control (IJRC)BeijingChina

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