Deciphering differences in the chemical and microbial characteristics of healthy and Fusarium wilt-infected watermelon rhizosphere soils
Plant health is determined by the comprehensive effect of soil physicochemical and biological properties. In this study, we compared the chemical properties and microbiomes of the rhizosphere soils of healthy, Fusarium oxysporum-infected, and dead watermelon plants and attempted to assess their potential roles in plant health and Fusarium wilt expression. The rhizosphere soils were collected from watermelon plants grown in a greenhouse under the same field management practices, and various soil microbial and chemical characteristics were analyzed. The rhizosphere soil of healthy plants had the lowest abundance of F. oxysporum and pH and the highest contents of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3−). The relative content of hemicellulose was decreased in the rhizosphere soil of F. oxysporum-infected plants. The differences in soil microbial compositions among the watermelons at the three health statuses were obvious, and their microbiomes changed gradually along with plant health status. The microbiome in the rhizosphere soil of healthy plants had the highest relative abundances of potential antagonists and the lowest relative abundances of potential pathogens. The specific microbial composition together with some chemical properties of the rhizosphere soil of healthy plants might be responsible for inhibiting Fusarium wilt expression.
KeywordsFusarium wilt Plant health Microbiome Soil chemical properties
This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41701304), Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (2016M601756), Jiangsu Planned Projects for Postdoctoral Research Funds (1701018B), and National Program on Key Basic Research Project of China (973 Program) (2015CB150500).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- De Clercq D, Van Trappen S, Cleenwerck I, Ceustermans A, Swings J, Coosemans J, Ryckeboer J (2006) Rhodanobacter spathiphylli sp. nov., a gammaproteobacterium isolated from the roots of Spathiphyllum plants grown in a compost-amended potting mix. Int J Syst Evol Micr 56:1755–1759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Egamberdieva D, Kamilova F, Validov S, Gafurova L, Kucharova Z, Lugtenberg B (2007) High incidence of plant growth-stimulating bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of wheat grown on salinated soil in Uzbekistan. Environ Microbiol 10:1–9Google Scholar
- Guo S, Zhang J, Sun H, Salse J, Lucas WJ, Zhang H, Zheng Y, Mao L, Ren Y, Wang Z, Min J, Guo X, Murat F, Ham BK, Zhang Z, Gao S, Huang M, Xu Y, Zhong S, Bombarely A, Mueller LA, Zhao H, He H, Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Huang S, Tan T, Pang E, Lin K, Hu Q, Kuang H, Ni P, Wang B, Liu J, Kou Q, Hou W, Zou X, Jiang J, Gong G, Klee K, Schoof H, Huang Y, Hu X, Dong S, Liang D, Wang J, Wu K, Xia Y, Zhao X, Zheng Z, Xing M, Liang X, Huang B, Lv T, Wang J, Yin Y, Yi H, Li R, Wu M, Levi A, Zhang X, Giovannoni JJ, Wang J, Li Y, Fei Z, Xu Y (2013) The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions. Nat Genet 45:51–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hoitink HAJ, Stone AG, Han DY (1997) Suppression of plant diseases by composts. HortScience 32:184–187Google Scholar
- Höper H, Alabouvette C (1996) Importance of physical and chemical soil properties in the suppressiveness of soils to plant diseases. Eur J Soil Biol 32:41–58Google Scholar
- Maitlo S, Rajput A, Syed R, Khanzada M, Rajput N, Lodhi A (2017) Influence of physiological factors on vegetative growth and sporulation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp ciceris. Pak J Bot 49:311–316Google Scholar
- Mendum TA, Sockett RE, Hisrsch PR (1999) Use of molecular and isotopic techniques to monitor the response of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing populations of the β subdivision of the class Proteobacteria in arable soils to nitrogen fertilizer. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:4155–4162PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Pal KK, Gardener BMS (2006) Biological control of plant pathogens. Plant Health Instructor 2:1117–1142Google Scholar
- Weinert N, Piceno Y, Ding GC, Meincke R, Heuer H, Berg G, Schloter M, Andersen G, Smalla K (2011) PhyloChip hybridization uncovered an enormous bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of different potato cultivars: many common and few cultivar-dependent taxa. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 75:497–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar