Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 2, pp 869–880 | Cite as

Reverse metabolic engineering in lager yeast: impact of the NADH/NAD+ ratio on acetaldehyde production during the brewing process

  • Xin Xu
  • Jinjing Wang
  • Min Bao
  • Chengtuo Niu
  • Chunfeng Liu
  • Feiyun Zheng
  • Yongxian Li
  • Qi LiEmail author
Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics


Acetaldehyde is synthesized by yeast during the main fermentation period of beer production, which causes an unpleasant off-flavor. Therefore, there has been extensive effort toward reducing acetaldehyde to obtain a beer product with better flavor and anti-staling ability. In this study, we discovered that acetaldehyde production in beer brewing is closely related with the intracellular NADH equivalent regulated by the citric acid cycle. However, there was no significant relationship between acetaldehyde production and amino acid metabolism. A reverse engineering strategy to increase the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio reduced the final acetaldehyde production level, and vice versa. This work offers new insight into acetaldehyde metabolism and further provides efficient strategies for reducing acetaldehyde production by the regulating the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio through cofactor engineering.


Brewer’s yeast Acetaldehyde NADH/NAD+ Reverse metabolic engineering 



This study was financially supported by the National Science Foundation (No. 31571942, No. 31771963, No. 31601558), Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities (No. 111-2-06), Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province (KYCX18_1790), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (JUSRP51306A, JUSRP51402A, JUDCF13008).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

253_2018_9517_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (124 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 123 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of BiotechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Food Science and TechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina
  3. 3.School of BiotechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiPeople’s Republic of China

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