Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 102, Issue 21, pp 9053–9066 | Cite as

Marine-derived Phoma—the gold mine of bioactive compounds

  • Mahendra RaiEmail author
  • Aniket Gade
  • Beata Zimowska
  • Avinash P. Ingle
  • Pramod Ingle


The genus Phoma contains several species ubiquitously present in soil, water, and environment. There are two major groups of Phoma, viz., terrestrial and marine. After 1981 researchers all over the world have focused on marine-derived Phoma for their bioactive compounds. The marine Phoma are very rich sources for novel bioactive secondary metabolites, which could potentially be used as drugs. Recently, a large number of structurally unique metabolites with potential biological and pharmacological activities have been isolated from the marine Phoma species particularly Phoma herbarum, P. sorghina, and P. tropica. These metabolites mainly include diterpenes, enolides, lactones, quinine, phthalate, and anthraquinone. Most of these compounds possess antimicrobial, anticancer, radical scavenging, and cytotoxic properties. The present review has been focused on the general background of Phoma, current approaches used for its identification and their limitations, difference between terrestrial and marine Phoma species. In addition, this review summarizes the novel bioactive compounds derived from marine Phoma and their biological activities.


Phoma Marine Secondary metabolites Bioactive compounds Biological and pharmacological activities 


Funding information

This review received financial assistance in the form of Basic Science Research Faculty Fellowship grant No F 18-1/2011 (BSR); 30/12/2016 from the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahendra Rai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aniket Gade
    • 1
  • Beata Zimowska
    • 2
  • Avinash P. Ingle
    • 1
    • 3
  • Pramod Ingle
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyS.G.B. Amravati UniversityAmravatiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Plant Pathology and MycologyUniversity of Life Sciences in LublinLublinPoland
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology, Engineering School of LorenaUniversity of Sao PauloLorenaBrazil

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