Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 102, Issue 21, pp 9037–9051 | Cite as

From nutraceutical to clinical trial: frontiers in Ganoderma development

  • Kai-Di Hsu
  • Kuan-Chen ChengEmail author


Ganoderma spp. are medical mushrooms with various pharmacological compounds which are regarded as a nutraceutical for improving health and treating diseases. This review summarizes current progress in the studies of Gamoderma ranging from bioactive metabolites, bioactivities, production techniques to clinical trials. Traditionally, polysaccharides and ganoderic acids have been reported as the major bioactive metabolites of Ganoderma possessing anti-tumor and immunomodulation functions. Moreover, recent studies indicate that Gandoerma also exerts other bioactivities such as skin lighting, gut microbiota regulation, and anti-virus effects. However, since these medical fungi are rare in natural environment, and that the cost of cultivation of fruiting bodies is high, industrial submerged fermentation of Ganoderma mycelia promotes the development of Ganoderma by dint of an increase of biomass and bioactive metabolites used for further application. In addition, various strategies for production of different metabolites are well developed, such as gene regulation, bi-stage pH, and oxygen control. To date, Ganoderma not only has become one of the most popular nutraceuticals worldwide but also has been applied to clinical trials for advanced diseases such as breast and non-small-cell lung cancer.


Ganoderma Nutraceutical Metabolites Clinical trials 



We would like to thank Yu-Hin Chan for revising this manuscript. This project was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST 106-2628-E-002-009-MY3).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of BiotechnologyNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Graduate Institute of Food Science TechnologyNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Medical Research, China Medical University HospitalChina Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

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