This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three treatments, i.e., Bifidobacterium longum BB-46 (T1), B. longum BB-46 combined with the pectin (T2), and harsh extracted pectin from lemon (T3) on obesity-related microbiota using the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®). The effects of the treatments were assessed by the analysis of the intestinal microbial composition (using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing) and the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and ammonium ions (NH4+). Treatments T2 and T3 stimulated members of the Ruminococcaceae and Succinivibrionaceae families, which were positively correlated with an increase in butyric and acetic acids. Proteolytic bacteria were reduced by the two treatments, concurrently with a decrease in NH4+. Treatment T1 stimulated the production of butyric acid in the simulated transverse and descending colon, reduction of NH4+ as well as the growth of genera Lactobacillus, Megamonas, and members of Lachnospiracea. The results indicate that both B. longum BB-46 and pectin can modulate the obesity-related microbiota; however, when the pectin is combined with B. longum BB-46, the predominant effect of the pectin can be observed. This study showed that the citric pectin is able to stimulate butyrate-producing bacteria as well as genera related with anti-inflammatory effects. However, prospective clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the anti/pro-obesogenic and inflammatory effects of this pectin for future prevention of obesity.
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The study is part of the “Bioactive components from by-products of food processing used in a synbiotic approach for improving human health and well-being (BioSyn)” project, within the frame of the international thematic project “Strategic Research Collaboration in Food Science in the State of São Paulo, Brazil and Denmark – 2013” FAPESP/DCSR. The authors wish to thank Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo and DCSR for the financial support and fellowships. The authors also wish to thank Thomas Lesser (Chr. Hansen, Denmark) and Karin Meyer Hansen (CP Kelco, Denmark) for providing, respectively, the B. longum BB-46 strain and the pectin from lemon and for the valuable discussions of the study results.
This article was supported by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) (Projects 2013/50506-8; 2015/13965-0; 2015/08228-6; 2016/20336-1), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and the Danish Council for Strategic Research (DCSR) (project BioSyn, no. 3050-00005B).
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Studies using fecal donations from human volunteers do not require medical ethical committee approval in Brazil since they are considered as noninvasive.
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Bianchi, F., Larsen, N., de Mello Tieghi, T. et al. Modulation of gut microbiota from obese individuals by in vitro fermentation of citrus pectin in combination with Bifidobacterium longum BB-46. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102, 8827–8840 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-018-9234-8
- Bifidobacterium longum BB-46
- Obese microbiota
- SHIME® model
- 16S rRNA sequencing