Role of plant phytochemicals and microbial enzymes in biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles

Abstract

Metal-based nanoparticles have gained tremendous popularity because of their interesting physical, biological, optical, and magnetic properties. These nanoparticles can be synthesized using a variety of different physical, chemical, and biological techniques. The biological means are largely preferred as it provides an environmentally benign, green, and cost-effective route for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. These bioresources can act as a scaffold, thereby playing the role of reducing as well as capping agents in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Medicinal plants tend to have a complex phytochemical constituent such as alcohols, phenols, terpenes, alkaloids, saponins, and proteins, while microbes have key enzymes which can act as reducing as well as stabilizing agent for NP synthesis. However, the mechanism of biosynthesis is still highly debatable. Herein, the present review is directed to give an updated comprehensive overview towards the mechanistic aspects in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles via plants and microbes. Various biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites in plants and key enzyme production in microbes have been discussed in detail, along with the underlying mechanisms for biogenic NP synthesis.

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Correspondence to Muhammad Ovais or Sudip Mukherjee.

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Ovais, M., Khalil, A.T., Islam, N.U. et al. Role of plant phytochemicals and microbial enzymes in biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102, 6799–6814 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-018-9146-7

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Keywords

  • Biosynthesis
  • Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs)
  • Phytonanotechnology
  • Phytochemicals
  • Microbial synthesis
  • Green synthesis