Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 102, Issue 10, pp 4535–4548 | Cite as

Interactions between carbon and nitrogen sources depend on RIM15 and determine fermentative or respiratory growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Ivanna Karina Olivares-Marin
  • Luis Alberto Madrigal-Perez
  • Melina Canizal-Garcia
  • Blanca E. García-Almendárez
  • Juan Carlos González-Hernández
  • Carlos Regalado-Gonzalez
Applied microbial and cell physiology


Nutritional homeostasis is fundamental for alcoholic fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Carbon and nitrogen have been related to this metabolic process; nevertheless, little is known about their interactions with the media and the energetic metabolism. Rim15p kinase is a point of convergence among different nutrient-activated signaling pathways; this makes it a target to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and energetic metabolism. To improve the current knowledge of nutrient interactions and their association with RIM15, we validated the doubling time as an indicator of growth phenotype, confirming that this kinetic parameter can be related to the cellular bioenergetic status. This endorses the usefulness of a threshold in doubling time values as an indicator of fermentative (≤ 6.5 h) and respiratory growth (≥ 13.2 h). Using the doubling time as response variable, we find that (i) two second-order interactions between type and concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources significantly affected the growth phenotype of S. cerevisiae; (ii) these metabolic interactions changed when RIM15 was deleted, suggesting a dependence on this gene; (iii) high concentration of ammonium (5% w/v) is toxic for S. cerevisiae cells; (iv) proline prompted fermentative growth phenotype regardless presence or absence of RIM15; (v) RIM15 deletion reverted ammonium toxicity when cells were grown in glucose (10% w/v); and (vi) RIM15 deletion improves fermentative metabolism probably by a partial inhibition of the respiration capacity. This study reveals the existence of synergic and diverse roles of carbon and nitrogen sources that are affected by RIM15, influencing the fermentative and respiratory growth of S. cerevisiae.


Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nutritional homeostasis Carbon and nitrogen interactions Respiro-fermentative metabolism Rim15p 



The authors thank Sofia Maria Arvizu-Medrano for the facilities on the use of the BioScreen machine, Eduardo Castaño-Tostado for his assistance with the JMP software analyses, Maria José Armenta-Cardenas for her assistance with kinetic experiments, and Lina Raquel Riego Ruiz for her thoughtful comments on the project.

Funding information

This project was supported by grants of the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (grant number 293940) and Fundación TELMEX-TELCEL (grant number 162005585), both to IKOM. Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro partially funded this work by Fondo de Proyectos Especiales de Rectoría (FOPER) (project number 239471) to IKOM.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

253_2018_8951_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (935 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 934 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivanna Karina Olivares-Marin
    • 1
  • Luis Alberto Madrigal-Perez
    • 2
  • Melina Canizal-Garcia
    • 2
  • Blanca E. García-Almendárez
    • 1
  • Juan Carlos González-Hernández
    • 3
  • Carlos Regalado-Gonzalez
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidad Autónoma de QuerétaroCerro de las CampanasSantiago de QuerétaroMexico
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Biotecnología Microbiana del Instituto Tecnológico Superior de Ciudad HidalgoCiudad HidalgoMexico
  3. 3.Laboratorio de Bioquímica del Instituto Tecnológico de MoreliaMoreliaMexico

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