Four second-sphere residues of Thermus thermophilus SG0.5JP17-16 laccase tune the catalysis by hydrogen-bonding networks
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The multicopper oxidases catalyze 1-electron oxidation of four substrate molecules and concomitantly 4-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. The substrate loses the electrons at the type 1 copper (T1 Cu) site of the enzyme, while the dioxygen is reduced to water at the trinuclear copper center. A highly conserved Glu residue, which is at the dioxygen-entering channel, shuttles the proton to break the O-O bond of dioxygen. At the water-leaving channel, an Asp residue was found to be important in the protonation mechanism. In this study, laccase from Thermus thermophilus SG0.5JP17-16 (lacTT) was investigated to address how four second-sphere residues E356, E456, D106, and D423 affect the activity of the enzyme. Kinetic data indicate that catalytic activities of the enzyme are altered by site-directed mutagenesis on four second-sphere residues. The structural model of lacTT was generated by homology modeling. Structural and spectral data indicate that the E356 residue is situated at the substrate-binding site, responsible for the binding of the substrate and the geometry of the T1 Cu site by hydrogen-bonding networks; the E456 residue, located at the dioxygen-entering channel, plays a critical role in stabilizing the structure of all active copper centers and shuttling the proton to the trinuclear copper cluster (TNC) for the reductive reaction of dioxygen; the D106 and D423 residues are at the water-leaving channel, and they are important for the essential geometry of the TNC and the release of the water molecules. Altogether, this study contributes to the further understanding of the basic mechanism involving the oxidation of the substrate, electron transfer, and the reduction of dioxygen in lacTT.
KeywordsBacterial laccase Enzyme mechanism Enzyme kinetics Homology modeling Hydrogen-bonding network
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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